How to avoid the appearance of dyspnea after myocardial infarction, preventive measures
Myocardial infarction, unfortunately, today has become a common disease, which is no longer surprising. According to statistics, every third, who touched myocardial infarction, dies, so you need to know how to provide first aid to a person before the arrival of emergency medical care. Perhaps your knowledge will save a person's life. It should be understood that the consequences of this disease are serious, we must prepare for them and understand how to live on.
- Causes of the disease
- Types of the disease
- Symptomatology of the disease
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of the disease
- What are the consequences of the disease?
- What is the symptomatology of dyspnoea?
- What to do with shortness of breath?
Causes of the disease.
Important!Myocardial infarction is an acute type of ischemic heart disease, characterized by the formation of a necrosis focus as a result of a lack of blood flowing to the heart muscle..
The causes of infarction are diverse. One of them is called stressful situations, which lead to a sudden narrowing of the lumen of the arteries. A high risk group is made up of patients with hypertension. If you do not control the pressure and do not reduce it in time with medications, it can lead to the formation of a thrombus, which for a long time stops the flow of blood to the heart muscle. To factors that increase the risk of the disease, you can include excess weight, smoking, atherosclerosis and much more.
Actually. the risk group includes all people aged 40 and older. But, unfortunately, because of poor ecology and modern lifestyle, there are cases of infarction and at a younger age.
Types of the disease
Myocardial infarction, depending on the size of the affected area, is divided into small-focal and large-focal. Still distinguish:
- complicated and uncomplicated;
- typical and atypical;
- primary, secondary and recurrent.
The infarction itself proceeds according to the following stages:
- Pre-infarction period;
- The most acute period (stage of ischemia);
- Acute (stage of necrosis);
- Subacute (stage of organization);
- Post-infarction period (stage of scar formation).
Symptomatology of the disease
Symptoms of myocardial infarction occur suddenly, so they can catch a person in any place and even, what is especially dangerous, on the street. Precursors of the disease are sharp and strong ("dagger") pain in the chest, which are given in the arm, back. The pain does not stop even after resorption of a tablet of nitroglycerin or other similar means.
The person has an incomprehensible attack of fear, there is increased sweating, dizziness, nausea, pain in the abdomen, the skin pales. Suddenly, breathing deteriorates, a person can stretch or tear his clothes to facilitate breathing. It happens that a person can not turn his tongue, as a result of which speech becomes confused, incomprehensible and slow. Blood pressure can rise or remain normal. and subsequently falls sharply.
These are the first signs that require a person urgently to call for an emergency medical care. The attack lasts differently 15-30 minutes and more, it all depends on the specific case. But you need to know that fifteen minutes is enough to form a necrosis on the heart muscle.
Sometimes there are atypical manifestations of myocardial infarction, in which case there are pains in the abdomen, impaired coordination of movements, severe shortness of breath. Sometimes the infarction occurs at all without manifestations of pain, but is only characterized by sharp attacks of anxiety and sleep disturbance.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnose the infarct by electrocardiography. A general and biochemical blood test is also mandatory. A sure sign of a heart attack is the appearance in the blood of specific myocardial markers: proteins, intracellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, alanine transferase, creatine phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase). C-reactive protein may appear, the number of leukocytes and the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation increase, which indicates the first signs of inflammation.
Treatment of the disease
In no case should you delay the treatment. It is very important to quickly turn to ambulance. Prior to the arrival of a doctor, it is recommended to lift the person, to give out nitroglycerin, and to take a tablet of acetylsalicylic acid, it will slightly reduce the viscosity of the blood, which will reduce the risk of forming a thrombus. It is recommended to give painkillers (at least analgin), 2 tablets panangin.
The main goal in the treatment of myocardium - as soon as possible to restore the flow of blood to the heart muscle, for this take acetylsalicylic acid, heparin, plavix, thrombolytics (streptokinase). If drug treatment does not help, then they resort to aorto-coronary bypass.
After the operation, rehabilitation plays an important role. It includes a gradual increase in physical activity, proper day regimen and dietary nutrition. The course of the rehabilitation period for each person individually.
It is important during this period to avoid complications, for example, pulmonary infarction. After a coronary heart attack, there may be shortness of breath and lack of oxygen, cardiac tamponade and so on. Prevention of the disease will have to be spent the rest of his life. It consists, in addition to the correct regimen and nutrition, in controlling blood pressure, controlling arrhythmias and thromboses. Particular attention should be paid to the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, so as not to progress atherosclerosis. It is important, as with many other cardiac or pulmonary diseases, to consume a large amount of vitamins, micro- and macro elements to maintain the heart.
Myocardial infarction is a serious condition, but medical assistance and treatment are provided on time, correctly carried out rehabilitation allows you to put a person on their feet and gives him the opportunity to live long years.
What are the consequences of the disease?
After a heart attack, various diseases and problems appear. One of the most frequent is shortness of breath. With myocardial infarction, part of the heart muscle dies off, and to continue to supply the body with oxygen. a person has to breathe more often. Therefore, shortness of breath implies a breathing disorder. In other words, a person does not have enough air after a myocardial infarction to maintain his own pulmonary rhythm. At the same time with deep breaths a person experiences obvious discomfort..
Attention!Heart failure and arrhythmias are the causes of dyspnea. Blood during such processes in the body does not enter the aorta in the right amount, it stagnates in the left atrium and in a small circle of blood circulation. This leads to an overflow of pulmonary vessels, a violation of pulmonary gas exchange..
Shortness of breath, characterized by a lack of oxygen, can persist for a long time depending on how quickly the work of the cardiovascular system is restored. Arrhythmia, an aneurysm of the heart can cause a recurrence of dyspnea. Respiratory disorders are sometimes accompanied by a dry and unproductive cough.
If rapid measures are not taken, shortness of breath can go to a more severe stage. In particular, pulmonary edema is formed after a heart attack. In this case, fluid accumulates in the lung tissues. It occurs when coughing or when breathing in the form of pink foam. At the same time there is a pallor of the skin after a heart attack, cyanosis of the lips, ears, nose and fingertips.
What is the symptomatology of dyspnoea?
Sometimes people can not understand whether they really have breathing problems, lack of oxygen and pulmonary dyspnea after a heart attack. To fix this, it is enough to follow such recommendations:
- Notice how you breathe. If there are any deviations from the usual respiratory or pulmonary rhythm, most likely there are problems and shortness of breath.
- At the beginning of the disease, shortness of breath after a heart attack occurs exclusively when performing serious physical exertion.
- Over time, shortness of breath and lack of oxygen begins to manifest and at rest, which is abnormal for a healthy person.
- The next stage of dyspnoea (lack of oxygen) is the appearance of orthopnea. This is shortness of breath, which is observed in the supine position.
- Separately, the so-called nocturnal dyspnea after a heart attack. Usually it passes after 5-20 minutes, but it is better not to take risks and immediately move to a vertical position.
- If you ignore simple recommendations, you may develop pulmonary edema, life-threatening, the likelihood of developing secondary heart problems is high.
For people after a heart attack, there are some subjective symptoms of shortness of breath that make it easy to understand that the problem really exists. Their number can vary depending on individual characteristics. So, a person has shortness of breath, if:
- It is difficult for him to breathe.
- It takes effort to breathe.
- Taking a deep breath is problematic.
- There is a feeling that the person suffocates.
- There is a feeling of tightness or chest tightness.
- Breath is heavy.
- Inability to exhale to the end.
- Respiration is frequent.
Why is it called such a number of manifestations? Because this includes those signs that occur more often than others after a heart attack.
What to do with shortness of breath?
If after a heart attack there is a feeling of lack of oxygen, it is recommended to consult a doctor promptly. Most diseases can be successfully cured. To reduce the unpleasant feelings will help the recommendations of specialists and taking medications.
Patients after a heart attack are advised to walk more often outdoors. At the same time to visit places with dust or smoke, sharp odors are not recommended. If there is excess weight or a sedentary lifestyle, the elimination of dyspnea will become possible after normalization of the heart. This will help weight correction and ordinary walking. You can start 3 times a week for 20 minutes, then the number of walks is increased, ensuring the effectiveness of treatment
Another effective means - an "air kiss" after a heart attack. It implies a slow inhalation of air through the lips, folded into a tube. Many patients who underwent pulmonary or heart attacks note the improvement in general condition.
Before the beginning of physical exercises after a heart attack, you can use an inhaler. In particular, this is important for those who have asthmatic breathing under any type of stress. Do not stop training, because without them you can not achieve visible results. Experts advise taking a few breaths through the inhaler 15-20 minutes before the start of training or running. It is important to warm up the body before exercise, performing a simple warm-up for 10 minutes..
Attention!Do not forget about the need to temper your own body after a heart attack. If possible, avoid catarrhal diseases, timely prophylaxis. In addition, it is recommended to always keep on hand antibacterial drugs prescribed by a doctor after a heart attack. Do not abuse alcohol and nicotine after a heart attack, which only worsens the state of human health..
Experts advise to breathe belly, not chest. This ensures proper deep breathing and normalization of the heart rhythm after a heart attack. To draw in air follows a nose, and to exhale with a mouth. At first glance, this seems complicated and problematic, but it's easier to get used to than it seems.
After a heart attack, you can live. Of course, we will have to limit ourselves and control our own health in order to avoid complications. However, this will have a beneficial effect on the body, the well-being will improve. Positively affects the fight against dyspnea strengthening of the heart and muscles, which take a direct part in the respiratory process. Help in this special exercises and swimming after a heart attack... .