Features of elevated hemoglobin in the child, the causes, methods of diagnosis and treatment
Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that transports oxides in the body of animals. It is part of the red blood cells called erythrocytes. Elevated hemoglobin in a child may indicate polycythemia or other disorders in the hematopoietic system.
- What does hemoglobin consist of?
- What is a prosthetic group?
- How is hemoglobin created?
- Normal values of iron-containing protein in the blood
- How to treat high hemoglobin at home?
What does hemoglobin consist of?
The hemoglobin molecule is a group of four globular protein subunits, each consisting of a protein chain closely associated with the prosthetic group. Each protein chain is included in a set of structural segments of the alpha helix, bound in a certain device, called the fold of myoglobin. This fold contains a "lock which is ideal for binding to a prosthetic group.
What is a prosthetic group?
The prosthetic group consists of an iron (Fe) atom contained in a heterocyclic ring known as porphyrin. This iron atom is the exact place of oxygen binding. The iron atom binds to four nitrogen atoms in the center of the ring and two additional bonds. One bond is adjacent to the protein part of the molecule, the second to the heme.
Types of hemoglobin in humans:
- The iron-containing protein F (α2γ2) (PDB 1FDH). This is fetal hemoglobin. The iron-containing peptide F is predominant during fetal development.
- The iron-containing peptide A (α2β2) (PDB 1BZ0). This is the designation of normal hemoglobin, which is present in the blood after birth.
- The iron-containing peptide A2 (α2δ2) is a minor component of hemoglobin, which is contained in red cells throughout life after birth.
How is hemoglobin created?
Like all proteins, there is an exact copy or plan for the synthesis of hemoglobin in DNA. Each person has four genes that code for an alpha-protein or alpha chain. Two other gene codes are needed for the beta chain.
The alpha chain and the beta chain are produced in equal amounts, despite the different number of genes. The protein chains are combined in the ontogenesis of red blood cells and remain together in the process of vital activity of the red cell.
Normal values of iron-containing protein in the blood
To find out whether hemoglobin is elevated in a child or not, it is possible after passing a general clinical study of peripheral blood. Depending on the age category, the normal values of hemoglobin in the bloodstream are variable.
Based on the reference values of the iron-containing peptide compound, one can judge the presence or absence of pathological conditions on the part of the hematopoietic system. It is worth noting that the hemoglobin level in the bloodstream is measured in grams per deciliter g / dl.
The concentration of iron-containing peptide compound in serum in g / dl:
- At newborn children - from 16 to 23;
- In children up to one month of age - from 14 to 22;
- In children from three to six years - from twelve to twenty;
- At teenagers - 14-22.
Hemoglobin is higher than normal in a child due to a pathological increase in the concentration of red blood cells. Blood flow in this state is severely impaired, which can cause a number of cardiovascular problems. An excessively high concentration of iron-containing protein is a warning sign indicating the presence of pathology. In any case, additional tests are needed to establish an accurate diagnosis.
High hemoglobin in a child, reasons:
- Cardiac, renal, pulmonary or multiple organ failure;
- Diseases of the hematopoiesis system;
- Intestinal obstruction;
- Acquired or congenital malformations of the heart muscle;
- Benign or malignant tumors;
In serious disorders or illnesses, the body directs all forces to restore normal vital activity. Red cells are needed in order to provide tissues with sufficient oxygen. In the event of an injury or illness, these cells are sent to the affected area.
A severe burn, for example, can cause increased hemoglobin. Another such condition may arise due to a long stay in regions with rarefied air (in the mountains) or after excessive physical exertion. If the high hemoglobin in a child is observed because of physiological reasons - this is a variant of the norm.
Signs indicating a high content of iron-containing protein in the blood:
- Chronic fatigue syndrome;
- A strong reddening of the face.
Important! If you have any of these symptoms, you should urgently consult your doctor. Excessive hemoglobin in children can greatly thicken the blood and worsen its rheological properties. This can lead to clogging of the vessel and rupture of calcium-cholesterol plaque..
A high concentration of iron-containing peptide compound in a baby can talk about erythrocytosis caused by a serious illness. Almost always against the background of congenital heart muscle defects, intestinal obstruction or psychoemotional stress, the number of red cells increases.
When receiving test results indicating an increased hemoglobin, a second examination is required. The results can be caused by the child's own condition or a malfunction in the operation of the laboratory machine. To hand over analyzes it is recommended in morning time and on an empty stomach, in a quiet state. After a heavy physical load, the concentration of iron-containing protein in the blood increases sharply.
How to treat high hemoglobin at home?
First, it is necessary to determine why the level of the hemobloc rose. The reasons for this condition are numerous. After setting the right diagnosis, you can start treatment.
Anticoagulants are contraindicated in children of virtually all ages. This is due to the fact that they adversely affect the work of eosinophils and monocytes, which provide uninterrupted immune protection to the young body.
Doctor of the highest category Komarovsky E. ABOUT. in his video recommends the correct make up of the child's diet. In summer, children need to be forced to consume more fluid. This helps to reduce the concentration of iron-containing protein. In some situations, the child is sufficient to provide the required amount of water.
Dietary modifications are an indispensable cure condition. From the diet, it is necessary to partially exclude iron-containing foods.
List of foods that can aggravate the situation:
- Meat dishes;
In the dietary table should be present fish products and plant foods, mainly fruits. Doctors recommend that the child spend more time in the open air.