What is the essence of cardiosclerosis, its classification and symptoms

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2017.06.30
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Heart pathology

Today, cardiovascular diseases are considered the most common among other pathologies of the human body. A special niche in this issue is cardiosclerosis. About him, we'll talk further in our article. To understand what it is - cardiac cardiosclerosis, it is worth considering the classification and causes of the disease.

Content

  • Classification of cardiosclerosis of the heart
  • Cardiosclerosis of the heart and its symptoms
  • Cardiosclerosis of the heart and the causes of its appearance
  • Cardiosclerosis and its treatment
  • Cardiosclerosis and the possible outcome of the disease

Classification of cardiosclerosis of the heart

Depending on the localization of the defeat of the myocardial tissue and the degree of cardiac pathology, there are:

  • Focal heart cardiosclerosis, the distinctive feature of which are considered to be independently formed areas of connective tissue. The latter can appear singly or massively, but still separate from each other. The main cause of this disease is considered to be previous heart disease, for example, myocardial infarction.
  • Diffuse cardiosclerosis of the myocardium - affects a certain area of ​​the organ, evenly spreading over a large area.

Depending on the cause of cardiosclerosis, hearts are distinguished:

  • Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis. Signs of cardiosclerosis of this type consist in hypoxia of the myocardium and other characteristic ischemic heart disease symptoms.
  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis appears where the tissues have become dead after a myocardial infarction.
  • Myocardial cardiosclerosis or myocardiosclerosis is accompanied by inflammation of the tissues of the heart muscle.
Myocardial cardiosclerosis

Separately, congenital cardiosclerosis is prominent. It does not depend on the heart diseases that have been transferred, since it is manifested from birth due to the aggravated heredity or inflammation that the child suffered in utero.

Cardiosclerosis of the heart and its symptoms

If you have the following symptoms, you should definitely consult a doctor:

  • Shortness of breath after physical exertion, which was previously tolerated without problems.
  • Decline of strength and general malaise.
  • Sensation of accelerated heartbeat even at rest.
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling of lack of oxygen in a supine position.
Aortokardioskleroz and myocardial cardiosclerosis are accompanied by a sense of lack of oxygen
  • Slight puffiness of the feet, mainly at the end of the day.

But still the symptomatology of cardiosclerosis may differ depending on the type and severity of the course of the disease, the location of scars and much more. We also considered the main signs that cover myocardial cardiosclerosis, aortocardiosclerosis, large-focal cardiosclerosis and other pathologies. Individual symptoms in either case will be more or less pronounced.

Cardiosclerosis of the heart and the causes of its appearance

The causes of heart cardiosclerosis are diverse. This disease rarely develops independently, more often as a consequence of other pathological processes. That's why these reasons were grouped together:

  1. The atherosclerotic form is manifested after a long course of ischemic heart disease, when myocardium is not properly saturated with oxygen and there are malfunctions in the cardiovascular work system. Muscles of the heart for a long period of time do not get the right amount of arterial blood. From this, between the cardiomyocytes, connective tissue sites are formed and the necessary conditions for the development of sclerosis are created.

The main causes of significant vasoconstriction in atherosclerosis:

  • The failure of a normal lipid metabolism in the body, which involves a large amount of cholesterol in the blood. This excess and clogs the blood vessels.
  • Chronic arterial hypertension. In this case, the blood flow is greatly accelerated, thereby contributing to the deposition of cholesterol in the vortexes of the arteries.
  • Tobacco smoking also increases the level of cholesterol in the blood plasma. Since the tobacco smoke provides temporary cramps of myocardial vessels, it, even for a small time, but still violates the normal blood flow. It turns out that this is enough for the formation of arterial plaques, which clog the vessel.
  • Excess weight adds to the heart. He has to work in an accelerated mode to fully oxygenate a large area of ​​myocardial tissue. Moreover, such people are more difficult to exercise. And this is one more step towards the manifestation of ischemic heart disease.
  • Genetic predisposition can also contribute to the manifestation of cardiosclerosis, because some children are already born with narrow coronary vessels and "ensure" their clogging can be even with a slight increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood.
  • Constant emotional stress, stress and negative emotions are the cause of many cardiovascular diseases. After all, in this case, the body increases the level of adrenal hormones, which leads to a malfunction of normal metabolism and increased vascular tone.
  1. Myocardial form suggests a completely different etiology of heart disease. In this case, there is cardiosclerosis - the defeat of the heart muscle and cardiomyocytes, which causes the inflammatory process - myocarditis. Inflammation contributes to the creation of a large volume of substances that damage the membrane of the myocardial tissue. Some fibers are irretrievably destroyed. While the body in its own way tries to fight the problem and increases the amount of connective tissue of the myocardium. So there is myocardiosclerosis.

The main causes of the appearance of sclerosis against the background of the inflammatory process:

  • viruses;
  • bacteria;
  • fungi;
  • allergic reactions;
  • autoimmune processes;
  • chronic inflammation;
  • toxic damage to the body in the abuse of alcohol, narcotic and psychotropic drugs.
  1. Postinfarction cardiosclerosis is a focal disease of the connective fibers of the myocardium, which appears in the patient after a previous myocardial infarction. After the violation of normal blood flow, a certain area of ​​muscles is isolated, necrosis develops in it. To somehow compensate for the lost tissue layers, the connective fibers expand. Thus, cardiosclerosis, as a cardiac disease, is a natural and irreversible outcome after an infarction. Of course, if the patient does not die during a heart attack.
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Terms: Necrosis is the irrevocable process of the death of body cells.

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  1. Other causes of the manifestation of the disease include significant radiation exposure; scleroderma; sarcoidosis of the heart and much more.

Cardiosclerosis and its treatment

The therapeutic course of treatment of cardiac cardiosclerosis is aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease and preventing further aggravation of the pathology. It is impossible to reverse the formed connective tissue inclusions, but it is quite possible to prevent the appearance of new scars.

Treatment of myocardial tissue, including the restoration of the normal rhythm of cardiac contraction, and preventive measures include the use of the following drugs:

  • beta-blockers;
  • nitroglycerin and nitrates of an auxiliary character;
  • ACE inhibitors;
  • diuretics;
  • antiaggregants and others.
Myocardiosclerosis and its medicamentous treatment

For the treatment of myocarditis, antiviral or antibacterial drugs are used, depending on the underlying cause of cardiac pathology.

Therapeutic (medicamentous) treatment of cardiomyopathy and myocardial dystrophy needs, first of all, to eliminate the cause of the onset of the disease. It can be diabetes mellitus or alcoholism. The attending physician may prescribe beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. The latter will additionally eliminate possible structural and geometric changes in the myocardium.

In extreme cases, surgical intervention is possible. Most often, surgical treatment is indicated to the patient, when the medicines do not give the desired effect. A pacemaker can be installed in the event of a malfunction in the normal contraction of the heart muscles.

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Important! Individual treatment course for diagnosis, for example, myocardial cardiosclerosis, is appointed exclusively by the attending physician at a personal reception and after passing the laboratory tests. Self-medication in this case is strictly prohibited, since the result of such activities may be death.

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Cardiosclerosis and the possible outcome of the disease

If you consider myocardiosclerosis, then with worsening of the course of the pathology may manifest atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystole, heart failure. But the worst is death. The latter option is possible if the person was not treated on time or did not comply with the requirements of the attending physician.

Large-scleral cardiosclerosis, aortocardiosclerosis and myocardiosclerosis and their undesirable outcome
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