What are the dangerous lowered platelets in a child, and what needs to be done in this situation?
Platelets are small blood cells without a nucleus oblate disc-shaped. Their deficiency or overabundance in the body adversely affects the patient's health, which is especially noticeable at a younger age. Thrombocytopenia is a disease in which a deficiency of platelets in the blood of children is documented. More details about what it is and what parents should do in such a situation - later in the article.
- Thrombocytes are below normal: what is the danger?
- Why are thrombocytes lowered in a child?
- Diagnosis and treatment
Thrombocytes are below normal: what is the danger?
If after the next blood test it turned out that the child has less platelets than should be at his age, this is an excuse to sound the alarm.
Platelets are responsible for blood clotting. The list of their functions includes:
- the allocation of specific substances that accelerate the healing of damaged tissues;
- blockage of the sites of damage to the vessel to stop bleeding;
- delivery of nutrients to the vascular endothelium.
When there are few such cells, the blood becomes more fluid, and wound healing slows down.
There are several forms of thrombocytopenia:
- easy - if the indicators are within 75-99 × 10⁹ / l;
- moderate - 50-74 × 10⁹ / l;
- average 20-49 × 10⁹ / l;
- heavy - 20 × 10⁹ / l.
Low platelets in the child in the first or second stage can be identified only by blood donation. Often this condition does not give any symptoms. Especially it concerns babies who can not say about their health.
Among the external features can be noted:
- frequent bleeding from the nose;
- bleeding gums;
- rashes all over the body;
- urine with an admixture of blood;
- vomiting with blood.
Reducing the number of platelets leads to undesirable consequences:
- prolonged healing of wounds;
- bruises, even from light touches;
- a relatively large loss of blood in scratches;
- hemorrhage from the digestive tract;
- in girls during puberty - uterine bleeding.
As you can see, these are quite dangerous complications. An untimely visit to a doctor can adversely affect the child's well-being..
Important! Before a visit to the doctor, remember all those factors that could trigger the manifestation of the symptom..
The smallest detail is enough to assume the right reason from the first. Knowing it, the doctor will be easier to make a treatment plan.
Why are thrombocytes lowered in a child?
Most often, a strong decrease in the number of blood plates causes thrombocytopenic purpura - an independent disease that manifests itself more often in the period from 2 years to 6 years. Other causes of thrombocytopenia in childhood:
- infectious diseases (measles, rubella);
- autoimmune reactions of the body;
- poisoning with heavy metals vapor;
- oncohematological diseases.
Purpura can be diagnosed even in a newborn. To minimize the consequences, you should immediately consult a doctor. He will compare the norms for the child and the findings and, if the platelet count has really fallen, will prescribe tests and treatment.
The norm depends on the age:
- in the newborn - 100-420 × 10⁹ / l;
- at the infants (up to a year) - 150-350 × 10⁹ / l;
- after the year - 180-320 × 10⁹ / l.
Obviously, the indicator 70 × 10⁹ / l means a low level of platelets in a child, and requires close monitoring of health.
Diagnosis and treatment
To identify the pathology, you need to donate blood. Taking is possible from a finger or a vein, and in case of infants - from a heel. To exclude that the blood platelets in the child's blood have decreased for a while (reaction to stress or disease), blood sampling is done several times with an interval of 3-5 days.
Important! Adolescent girls are allowed to reduce the number of blood platelets. This is due to the formation of the menstrual cycle..
Since the level of platelets can lower other diseases, they first cure them, and only then they look at the situation. If there are complications, and thrombocytopenia has not disappeared, a number of medications are prescribed. The list of activities may include:
- injections of immunoglobulins;
- taking hormonal drugs and cytotoxic drugs;
- the introduction of special hemostatic drugs;
- transfusion of platelet mass.
Important! In severe cases, you need to be prepared for the removal of the spleen..
Such surgical intervention is completely justified, if the low level of platelets in the blood of a child is not regulated to the necessary extent with the help of medications.
In severe stages, bed rest is prescribed. It is recommended to eat more nuts, bananas and pomegranates - in a healthy body, they naturally provoke increased production of blood plates.
If the platelets in a child are strongly or moderately low, it makes sense to give him only warm food - this will have a positive effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa and will reduce the risk of bleeding.
Regardless of the severity of the lowered platelets in the blood of a child - this is always an alarming sign, so parents should carefully monitor the child's condition and at the first suspicion turn to the doctor. Especially this applies to those families whose genus is prone to thrombocytopenia.
Like any disease, this problem is easier to treat in the early stages of development, so do not delay..
Important! Self-medication is strictly prohibited! Even if the child's symptoms coincide with those of friends or relatives, this does not mean that they have the same underlying cause. But in fact it must be eliminated first..
Remember that symptomatic treatment will improve the situation only for a while, and then possibly a sharp deterioration in the condition. Strictly adhere to the doctor's recommendations... .