Symptoms, treatment, prevention of deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities
Formation of a blood clot, or thrombus. in the venous lumen leads to an inflammatory and stagnant process in the vessels. Begins the development of deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities: symptoms, treatment of pathology depend on its shape and causes of appearance.
The thrombosis is fraught with complications up to a fatal outcome. When deep veins, located in the thickness of muscle tissue, are clogged with thrombi, the patient's condition is abruptly deteriorates, blood flow is disturbed, the organs do not receive the necessary oxygen, because of what develops necrosis tissues.
- Why there is a pathology?
- Symptoms of pathology
- Classification and symptoms of various forms of pathology
- Pregnancy and thrombophlebitis
- What can be afterwards?
- Diagnostic procedures
- How is pathology treated?
Why there is a pathology?
The main cause of thrombophlebitis is the destruction of the walls of the vessels as a result of poorly conducted acupuncture, the setting of intravenous infusions or a catheter. Provoke pathology can varicose. Other reasons for the damage to the arteries are:
- passive way of life;
- circulatory disturbance;
- development of infection in the lumen of the vessel;
- abnormal structure of the lumen;
- poor blood clotting;
- long stay on legs;
- smoking, alcohol;
- reception of contraceptives;
- pregnancy, when large veins are squeezed by a growing uterus in the pelvic area;
- oncological processes;
Most often, they risk getting a woman's pathology during the postmenopausal period during the course of treatment with hormonal drugs..
Symptoms of pathology
With the defeat of deep veins with thrombophlebitis, the life of the patient is most at risk. To provoke a pathology can superficial damage of a skin and penetration into an organism of an infection. As a result, a dense, reddening of the affected area along the ascending area of the vein is formed, a venous network on the legs is formed. Gradually, small veins are involved in the pathological process.
Symptoms of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities may be fuzzy, similar to other pathologies. The skin on the inflamed place becomes sensitive, hot. Apparently pronounced hyperemia and venous pattern on the legs. At a thrombus formation at the patient of the complaint on:
- circulatory disturbance in the legs;
- cyanosis of the skin, puffiness;
- a feeling of itching, heat;
- pulsating pain and burning with strengthening during walking, changing the position of the legs, for example: when getting out of bed;
- a fever, an increase in temperature to 38 ° C.
Pathology often occurs in women in the postpartum period (in the first 10-12 days). In the case of adherence to thrombophlebitis, the symptoms become more pronounced:
- the formation of an abscess under the skin of the skin;
- abscess abscess;
- separation of muscles from bone in the affected area;
- excessive tension, stiffness, puffiness.
The affected place becomes hot and inflamed, which indicates a violation of the movement of venous blood, squeezing the vessels, damaging the venous valves. In the answers of laboratory analysis, the increased number of platelets. Clotting of the blood slows down. The affected vein begins to squeeze nearby healthy muscles. The formed thrombus in case of detachment leads to occlusion of vital arteries.
Thrombophlebitis of the deep veins has a latent course and rapidly progresses, turning into a chronic incurable stage..
Pathology for a long time can go unnoticed and leak without symptoms. Women sometimes do not notice minor manifestations of venous insufficiency and do not rush to go to the doctors. Thrombophlebitis progresses, a blockage of veins can result in death.
If there is severe swelling in the affected area, a change in skin tone, pulling pain in the calf muscles, weight in the legs should be urgently sought help. You can not ignore the symptoms:
- severe swelling of veins located on the surface;
- local increase in temperature;
- cyanosis of the skin;
- exacerbation of pain in the calf muscles during movements, when the foot begins to ache, swell from the back, does not give rest at night.
There is a small fossa on the site of inflammation. The liquid can enter the intercellular space. If you do not treat the pathology, then over time the affected area will begin to darken.
Classification and symptoms of various forms of pathology
Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs according to the ICD can have 4 forms of development, and the symptoms may differ:
- the acute form is manifested by swelling, pain in the muscles and the area of the subcutaneous vein of the thigh or lower leg, an increase in temperature to 39-40 ° C, chills, hyperemia, a cyanotic streak on the leg in place pathological process;
- postinfection form can lead to pulmonary embolism, the onset of hematoma;
- the introvascular form is characterized by the development of atherosclerosis, the filling of the affected vein with blood clots;
- Chronic form, when symptoms are lubricated or absent. Periodically, there are pain in the legs when walking, giving extra calf muscles to the calf muscles.
First develops thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of the upper or lower extremities, when the symptoms are similar to varicose veins. Only a timely diagnosis can guarantee a cure for the pathology at an early stage.
Pregnancy and thrombophlebitis
Pregnancy in women often becomes a provoking factor, leading to the development of thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Increases intrauterine pressure in the abdominal cavity on the background of fetal growth. As a complication, symptoms of thromboembolism may appear.
The postpartum period is associated with huge loads, the body begins to work in a strengthened mode. Venous walls are compressed, their tone is increased. During the passage of the child through the birth canal, his head pinches the veins in the small pelvis. The tonus of the walls sharply decreases, and the vessels expand. The natural flow of blood in the legs is violated, a thrombus is formed.
Acute thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is most often observed in women in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with the appearance of vascular asterisks on the lower legs, ankles and hips, tenderness and swelling of the feet up to seizures.
What can be afterwards?
In thrombophlebitis, a dangerous complication is the rupture of the thrombus, the development of mass thromboembolism, when the fatal outcome is inevitable. There are cases of self-resolution of the blood clot and partial release of the venous lumen, but one should not hope for self-healing. A connective tissue can form around the vein, because of which:
- blockage of the branches of the pulmonary artery;
- the development of a heart attack and stroke, when the clot breaks away from the vessel wall and rapidly migrates into the coronary arteries and the capillaries of the brain, leading to blockage.
The scenario of complications in thrombophlebitis may be different. Increased internal pressure in the arteries of the lungs by more than 40 units can lead to:
- thromboembolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery;
- myocardial infarction;
- problems with breathing.
Particular danger is represented by chronic venous insufficiency, which can lead to the development of hypovolemic shock, gangrene, sepsis, disability.
With suspicion of thrombophlebitis in men and women, the study is complex, because pathology is similar to many other diseases, and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish it even by a specialist. After the initial examination, the doctor will redirect the patient to:
- duplex scanning for the detection of vascular status, degree of activity of blood flow;
- phlebography of legs by the introduction of a contrast agent in the venous system: a method that is informative and relevant when suspicion of the formation of clots in the veins of the small pelvis;
- MRI for a more complete picture of thrombophlebitis;
- scintigraphy by the introduction of a radioactive marker for suspected thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery;
- ECG as an additional analysis to monitor blood pressure values;
- blood analysis for ESR, leukocyte count, reactive hypoglycoprotein protein, prothrombin index level.
Thrombophlebitis is treated by doctors:
- vascular surgeon;
How is pathology treated?
At a thrombophlebitis there will be a question on prophylactic medical examination of the patient. Conservative treatment of pathology presupposes an integrated approach: medications, ointments, exercise therapy. With the progression of thrombophlebitis, one can not do without the operation or flotation of the severed thrombus, the ligation of the affected veins, shunting arteries, implantation or installation of a cava filter as a device for catching a thrombus, blood flow.
The medication method involves the appointment of:
- anticoagulants (Clexan, Fragmin);
- NSAIDs (Troxerutin, Troxevasin, Diclofenac, Nurofen Gel, Naise) for external use;
- tonic (Venarus, Detralex) for varicose veins;
- thrombolytic agents for the purpose of dissolving the formed clots;
- antibiotics in the presence of bacterial infection;
- steroids (Indovazin) with a course of treatment up to 7 days.
Acute thrombophlebitis of superficial hollow veins of the lower extremities is treated under the supervision of specialists. After surgical intervention, seams will be applied, compressive bandages for tight fixation of the venous walls. Patients are assigned bed rest with lifting the affected leg up, lying on the bed in order to normalize the blood flow.
Effective against the pathology of ointment for rubbing in the home (Heparin ointment, Troxevasin) for pain relief, removal of inflammation.
Effects of drugs:
- quickly penetrate deep into the tissues;
- do not give blood clots;
- block the production of prostaglandins;
- relieve inflammation;
- have anti-edematous effect.
Self-treatment is excluded. Certain ointments can not be used for compresses with thrombophlebitis. Before use, it is recommended that you consult your physician and do not disregard dosages for self-administration..
Diet is of special importance in thrombophlebitis. The food should include:
- melons and melons;
- fresh vegetables and fruits to strengthen the venous walls, dilution of blood.
Completely abandon alcoholic beverages, pickled, fried, smoked dishes, foods with vitamin K, which can increase blood coagulability and lead to thrombosis. Particular attention to food should be given to patients with a stomach ulcer.
With the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities treatment will be incomplete without the organization of the regime of work and rest. Patients are recommended:
- move more;
- conduct exercises on flexion-extension of fingers on the feet of the feet and hands;
- to swim;
- wear compression underwear.
Regardless of the form of thrombophlebitis and the status of the patient after the operation, a course of physiotherapy is mandatory..
Folk recipes for treatment of thrombophlebitis and relief of pain, elimination of unpleasant symptoms of pathology in the legs can be used only with the permission of the attending physician:
- verbena (flowers), to prepare a decoction, to treat pathology to treat inflamed patches;
- Bodiaga by dilution with water and application on the legs;
- raspberry, chamomile, white willow, chestnut, plantain for cooking the collection: take for 1 hour. l. each herb, pour boiling water (1 glass), insist, cool, rub in the affected legs.
Homeopathy is effective in thrombophlebitis, treatment with leeches for deep vein pathologies. In order to prevent pathology, it is important to eliminate stress, dose the load on the feet when walking, running.
At an early stage, thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is successfully treated, symptoms and treatment, the prognosis depends on the severity, the stage of the process. In neglected cases and transition to a chronic form of relapse, complications can become intrusive and recurrent.
It is important to understand, than venous thrombophlebitis is dangerous, and it is not necessary to delay with the reference to the doctor and treatment at occurrence of obvious signs of a pathology. Only strict adherence to recommendations for the treatment of pathology and indications of physicians can guarantee a positive outcome of thrombophlebitis.
How to perform an operation with thrombophlebitis of the arteries, you can see in the video:
About measures for the prevention of thrombophlebitis and methods of treating pathology is described in the following video:.. .