The causes of congenital heart disease in children, symptoms and methods of treatment
Congenital heart disease according to statistics is in 1% of newborns in the world. The bad thing is that to reveal the factors that the development of pathology begins during pregnancy, it turns out rarely, only in 10% of all cases. Due to early diagnostics and modern surgical methods of treatment, children born with pathologies can overcome death and live on without consequences, keeping up with others.
- Heart disease in children
- Causes of the disease
- Diagnosis in the first years of life
- Diagnosis of malformations after a year
Heart disease in children
Heart disease in children - the deformation of the anatomical structure of the heart and blood vessels, which depart from it. Due to this there is a violation of hemodynamics, which affects the development and health of the child. All kinds of this pathology are divided into two groups:
For newborn children, congenital pathologies are characterized, which are divided into two types:
- "Blue when the blood from the veins enters the arteries, and the skin of the baby becomes a characteristic bluish shade. This group of UPUs is considered the most dangerous, since all organs in children and tissues do not receive the necessary amount of oxygen due to mixing of arterial and venous blood.
- "White in which blood is discharged into the right heart departments. Such defects are much more easily tolerated by children, but with age, heart failure develops, problems with the lungs are possible.
This is the main thing that you need to know about the signs of heart disease in children, in addition, parents should know not only the classification, but also the reasons for their appearance.
Causes of the disease
Congenital malformations develop in the womb, this happens during the formation of the heart and the vascular system of the fetus, in the first trimester of pregnancy. If in the first two months of pregnancy the mother's organism is exposed to harmful factors, the risk of congenital malformation in the fetus is significantly increased. It is worth highlighting the moments that increase the risk of heart disease:
- consumption of alcohol;
- use of narcotic drugs;
- taking medicines (antibiotics, aspirin and others);
In addition to such causes of occurrence, a special role is played by hereditary predisposition.
Some genes can mutate, as a result of which the synthesis of proteins is broken, due to which the septa of the heart are formed.
Important! Heart defects are characteristic of children born with chromosomal abnormalities: Down syndrome, Patau and others..
Diagnosis in the first years of life
If the expert is experienced, then he will be able to identify the problem at the stage of pregnancy, in utero. For this, ultrasound is used. Doctors constantly advise future mothers to undergo scheduled ultrasound to timely detect the occurrence of congenital heart defects.
After it was possible to diagnose UPU, the woman is given certain conditions: it is possible to give birth, but then the child will have a heart defect, and it is not known how the problem will manifest itself in the future, or refuse childbirth. In the case when the mother gives consent to the bearing of the child, the delivery procedure must be carried out in such a way that the baby is immediately provided with medical care. After childbirth, all children with "blue" congenital heart defects are sent to the intensive care unit for surgery.
In some cases, the symptoms of pathology in utero can not be detected, in this case the child is born, visually everything is good with him and he is completely healthy, but the problem manifests itself with the development, as a rule, up to a year.
In order not to miss the pathology, to exclude its progression, to prevent complications, every child after childbirth needs to be carefully examined. The first symptom of the disease is noise in the heart, which is revealed when listening. If such a symptom is present, the baby is sent to a special clinic for in-depth diagnosis.
It is not always possible to detect symptoms of congenital heart disease in children in the first day of life, and then every parent should know how to define the UPU so that in case of doubt show the baby doctor:
- The color of the skin, depending on the type of disease, can be blue or pale. It is clearly visible the change in the shade near the mouth, on the hands and on the heels.
- Poor body weight gain.
- Constant lethargy and respite during the period of feeding.
- Heart palpitations, the norm is 150-160 strokes.
- In some cases, all the described symptoms can be noted at the age of up to 1 year, but the problem in adolescents is not excluded.
Diagnosis of malformations after a year
If the symptoms do not appear in the first years of life, there are certain symptoms that need to be known and taken into account:
- Physical development can slow down, the baby will lag behind their peers in growth.
- When the load starts, shortness of breath.
- The child may complain of frequent and persistent headaches or dizziness.
- Fainting is not excluded.
- The kid is constantly ill with SARS, which often lead to complications.
Parents are required to regularly take their child to a pediatrician to monitor their development and health status. Only the doctor can recognize the noise and notice those symptoms that are not visible to the parents. The pediatrician should be visited once a month, if the child's age is up to a year, at an older age - once a year..
If there are people with UPU in the family, the woman's pregnancy did not go well, but with complications, severe toxemia or adverse factors, the child is better to be examined immediately after birth with the help of echocardiography, even in cases where there are no special symptoms..
Many parents are interested in how to treat pathology, but there is no single answer, because each case is individual. One child will be helped only by an operation that should be performed immediately after childbirth, and the second may require surgical intervention at an older age. The operation is not always carried out, sometimes limited to conservative methods.
Pathology is treated without surgical correction, if children normally tolerate CHD. This happens in such cases:
- There are minor defects in the partitions.
- The arterial duct is open.
- Insignificant deformity of valvular valves.
The described problems are characterized by a favorable forecast, but the child should visit the cardiologist regularly.
It is much more problematic when a child has a "blue" defect. This kind is not only more difficult to treat, but also more dangerous. The most difficult include:
- Transposition, when the aorta and the pulmonary artery change places.
- Departure of the LA and aorta from the ventricle.
- The tetralogy of Fallot, it is a combined vice, which includes at once 4 problems associated with the development of the heart and blood vessels.
- Severe valve defects.
- Hypoplasia of parts of the heart.
Particularly dangerous malformation with the underdevelopment of the left heart. This pathology is common in preterm infants, the prognosis is unfavorable. Another complicated defect is atresia of the pulmonary artery. With it, rapidly growing heart failure. In an operative way, you can correct pathology, but success depends on the speed of medical care.
Intrauterine diagnosis allows doctors to identify the problem much earlier. In this case, if the woman decides to give birth, then the doctors will be ready for an immediate operation so that the child, after compensating the pathology, could live like all children.
What is the UPU, and how to deal with it, is already clear, but it is worthwhile to know some more rules that need to be observed during the treatment of the disease:
- The correct diet for a child, which should be balanced, with a high content in dishes and products of calcium, magnesium, potassium. It is recommended to give the kids oatmeal, pearl barley, buckwheat, apples, prunes. The diet should not include salted, pickled and canned dishes.
- To compensate for health problems, it is recommended to eat small meals, often, but in small portions.
- It is important to observe the regime of the day, go to bed on time, so that the body can rest, and the heart was not so heavily loaded.
- The child needs to be protected as much as possible from overexcitation and stressful situations, to exclude loads.
- Continually go for walks, preferably in places with good ecology.
Heart disease can be successfully corrected in most cases. The main thing is to call the doctor on time and help the child in time. From such a pathology, no folk remedy will help, only specialists can identify the problem and prescribe treatment... .