Ovarian cancer - metastases
Ovarian cancer is a fairly common malignant disease, which ranks fifth among women's oncology. The most common form of this pathology is epithelial cancer. Cancerous damage to the ovaries, mainly observed in women under 40 years. The main carcinogenic role in the appearance of the tumor is the violation of the hormonal balance.
Most malignant neoplasms form metastatic foci at different stages of their development.Ovarian cancer with metastasesnot an exception, in most cases, metastases are determined in the third stage of oncology. The proliferation of cancerous tissues leads to the penetration of genetically mutated cells into lymphatic and blood vessels.
Ovarian cancer - metastases and ways of their spread
- Cancerous damage to the ovaries in most cases metastasizes to the abdominal organs and the peritoneum proper.
- The second most frequent localization of the secondary malignant focus is the omentum and the vagina.
- The regional lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity are considered to be a regular place of spread of cancer cells.
- After involvement in the pathological process of nearby organs, patients are diagnosed with "ovarian cancer metastasesin the liver, lungs. " These metastases are quite rare and mostly observed a few years after the surgery.
Ovarian Cancer Metastases - Symptoms
In the late stages of cancer, patients have an intense pain syndrome, which is accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen. In addition, the patient experiences a sharp loss of appetite. Cancer of the 4th degree with ovarian metastases is characterized by a gradual increase in the size of the tumor, which is visually determined in the form of swelling of the abdomen.
The spread of metastases to the organs of the gastrointestinal tract is accompanied by disturbances in digestive processes and even the development of intestinal obstruction.
Metastatic damage to the hepatic and pulmonary tissue causes acute cancer intoxication of the body and difficulty in the work of the respiratory system.
Diagnosis of the disease
The primary diagnosis is carried out by a gynecologist who at the stage of gynecological examination may suspect the presence of cancer. In the future, the patient is sent to the oncology dispensary, where the oncologist already prescribes additional diagnostic measures to clarify the diagnosis:
- Ultrasonographyorgans of the small pelvis, which allows you to assess the extent of the spread of malignant process.
- General blood analysisfor the presence of markers of oncology. This technique has a relative accuracy due to the fact that these substances can be determined in other cancers.
- Radiographyorgans of the chest cavity is conducted for examination of the lungs for the presence of metastatic processes.
- Computer and magnetic resonance imaginglies in the layer-by-layer radiographic scanning of the body, which is necessary for a detailed study of the malignant neoplasm and the boundaries of oncology.
- Biopsy. The essence of the method is to select a small area of pathological tissue, which is performed under local anesthesia and requires high qualification of medical personnel. The obtained biological material is sent to the laboratory, where a cytological and histological study of the cellular composition of the tumor is carried out. A biopsy allows you to establish a definitive diagnosis indicating the type and stage of the tumor.
Treatment of ovarian cancer in 3-4 stages
The main method of treatment of malignant neoplasms of gynecological organs is combined anticancer therapy, which includes:
- Radical excision of a tumortogether with the ovaries, the uterus and its appendages. In the process of surgical intervention regional lymph nodes are to be removed as a source of metastatic cells of the primary lesion focus. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia and requires a long period of rehabilitation.
- Radiation therapy, which is considered an indispensable means of combating the spread of cancer cells in advanced stages of oncology. Systemic exposure to highly active radiological radiation causes the death of pathological cells in all body systems. This technique is also used as a preparatory stage before a radical surgery, because it is able to stabilize the primary malignant process.
- Chemotherapy. Therapeutic course of cytotoxic drugs is calculated individually for each patient, depending on the severity of the disease and the number of metastases in distant organs and systems. Chemotherapy causes the destruction of the walls of all types of cancer cells and thereby enhances the effect of surgical intervention.
Ovarian cancer with metastases - prognosis
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer in the third stage, subject to a full range of therapeutic procedures, accounts for 40% of the five-year postoperative survival rate.
Ovarian cancer of the 4th stage does not give a favorable prognosis of the disease. Medical measures at this stage are palliative, that is, they are aimed at reducing the subjective manifestations of pathology..