When is it necessary to take funds that affect erythropoiesis? Reasons for a decrease in red blood cell counts

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2017.08.10
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Erythrocytes

Erythropoiesis is the process of erythrocyte formation. The main role of red blood cells (red blood cells) is the transport of oxygen from the human lungs to the cells of the whole organism, and carbon dioxide is back. The lack of red blood cells leads to anemia.

Content

  • Little about the reasons
  • Means stimulating erythropoiesis
  • Remedies for hypochromic anemia
  • Means used in hyperchromic anemia
  • Remedies for erythropoiesis
  • A little about leukopoiesis
  • Means stimulating leukopoiesis

Little about the reasons

The reasons for reducing the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream:

  • insufficient amount of iron supplied with food;
  • lack of vitamins;
  • prolonged heavy blood loss;
  • decay of erythrocytes.

To better understand the means that affect erythropoiesis, it is necessary to distinguish the types of anemia:

  • hypochromic (iron deficiency is noted);
  • hyperchromic (lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid).
Causes of anemia

Means stimulating erythropoiesis

Stimulants that have a positive effect on erythropoiesis on the pharmacological market are many. They are used for a lack of erythropoiesis and for anemia of different etiologies. Unfortunately, all types of anemia can not be cured with drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. But with the diseases listed above, therapeutic methods are effective. Below are considered common drugs that affect the process of erythropoiesis.

Remedies for hypochromic anemia

With this type of anemia, the number of red blood cells in the blood does not decrease, but the number of hemoglobin in them decreases. The most common cause of this problem is bleeding. Another hypochromic anemia occurs when there is insufficient amount of iron supplied with food (especially susceptible to infants who are on artificial milk mixtures). The risk of developing iron deficiency anemia and people suffering from digestive disorders (lack of hydrochloric acid) are at risk.

As you know, getting into the body, iron is absorbed mainly in the small intestine. In the proper course of this process, hydrochloric acid, which is contained in gastric juice, plays an important role. The presence of iron is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin, in addition, it is an important element in the composition of certain enzymes. The presence of cobalt and copper has the greatest effect on the assimilation of iron.

Most often, iron-containing preparations are prescribed reduced iron. These agents that stimulate erythropoiesis are taken orally in tablets with a special coating, which prevents the darkening of the tooth enamel. They are released in the form of capsules. The effect of the drug can be enhanced by simultaneous administration of drugs containing hydrochloric acid in diluted form.

In pharmacology, in addition to reduced iron, other types of drugs are used:

  • Medicinal products containing iron, more precisely, ferrous sulphate (ferroplex, ferrogradumet, tardiferone).
  • Means containing cobalt (coamid). The prepared solution is injected intramuscularly.
  • Vitamins (cyanocobalamin, folic acid, ascorbic acid and others).
  • Drugs that include human erythropoietins. The effect of treatment with erythropoietins does not come immediately, but in 2-3 weeks. This group of drugs stimulates erythropoiesis by smoothly increasing the number of erythrocytes in the blood.

Almost all stimulants of erythropoiesis have two minuses:

  • can cause irritation of the digestive tract, nausea and vomiting;
  • constipation often occurs, since iron-containing agents bind hydrogen sulphide in the intestine.

Such side effects are absent in iron preparations, which are administered intravenously. For example, farkovena.

Means used in hyperchromic anemia

Hyperchromic anemia is the exact opposite of hypochromic anemia. With these types of anemia, the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells rises, but their total number falls sharply. And, as a consequence, the hemoglobin index also decreases.

In therapy for the treatment of this disease, cyanocobalamin is prescribed, which contains vitamin B12 in solution. The agent is administered intramuscularly. With the use of cyanocobalamin, a positive effect is achieved rather quickly. Disorders in the central nervous system are eliminated, the normal process of hematopoiesis is restored.

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Do not forget about the side effects when taking cyanocobalamin: nervous overexcitation, allergy, tachycardia. The drug is contraindicated in erythrocytosis and acute thromboembolism.

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Separately, there is a fairly widespread variety of hyperchromic anemia - macrocytic anemia. In this case there is a lack of folic acid. Especially often occurs during pregnancy.

Folic acid is a vitamin, the presence of which is necessary for erythropoiesis. In macrocytic anemia, erythrocytes of large diameter are formed. However, their total number decreases. For successful treatment, usual folic acid (vitamin B9) is prescribed. With conventional hyperchromic anemia, folic acid does not give the desired effect. Treatment with this drug does not give side effects, but can cause allergic reactions.

All considered drugs are stimulants of erythropoiesis. They are prescribed only with a deficiency or hemoglobin, or erythrocytes in the blood. Only a doctor can find a suitable remedy.

Means involved in the correction of erythrocyte indices

Remedies for erythropoiesis

There is not only insufficient erythropoiesis. There is also a condition opposite to the first: excessive erythropoiesis (erythremia). The most common cause of this phenomenon are malignant tumors in the bone marrow. In this case, antineoplastic agents are prescribed, which are used only in specialized medical institutions.

Such preparations include sodium phosphate solution. When it is used, the number of red blood cells decreases. The drug is administered intravenously.

A little about leukopoiesis

Leukopoiesis is a process of producing leukocytes. Like erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis originates in the stem cells of the human bone marrow.

Violation of leukopoiesis occurs when exposed to poisons, toxicological substances, radiation, analgin, drugs taken with diabetes and epilepsy. Often, leukopoiesis is disrupted along with erythropoiesis.

Violations of leukopoiesis can be of two types:

  1. Leukopenia or agranulocytosis occurs with a decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood. The main signs of leukopinia are frequent infectious diseases, decreased immunity, fatigue, weakness, pale skin. In this case, the stimulation of leukopoiesis is necessary.
  2. Leukocytosis or leukemia, on the contrary, occurs when the number of leukocytes in the body increases. The main symptoms: memory impairment, long healing of scratches, the appearance of bruising, nosebleeds, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes. In this case, agents that suppress leukopoiesis are used.

Means stimulating leukopoiesis

The drugs that stimulate leukopoiesis include:

  1. Molgrastim (leukomax) is produced in the form of a powder of varying dosage. It is administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Side effects: dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, muscle pain, dizziness.
  2. Methyluracil, pentokisl is prescribed only with minor forms of leukopinia. Produced in the form of powder or tablets. Pentoxil affects the accelerated healing of wounds or scratches, has anti-inflammatory effect. Often causes disorders of the digestive tract (heaviness, early satiety). In methyluracil, there is no irritant effect.
  3. Sodium Nucleinate. Another name is the sodium salt of the nucleic acid. It is produced from ordinary yeast. The drug is administered intramuscularly.

To drugs that suppress leukopoiesis, include antitumor drugs. They are used only in specialized medical institutions:

  • Cyclophosphane is available in the form of a powder, in tablets. The solution is administered intramuscularly or intravenously;
  • Novembechin is administered only intravenously. Release in the form of a dry powder.

Therapy with antitumor drugs is performed only under the supervision of a doctor.

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Important! Means that affect erythropoiesis and leukopoiesis are dispensed only by prescription. Without the appointment of a qualified specialist, do not apply!

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