Bladder cancer in women
Bladder cancer in womenis a malignant neoplasm developing from the cells of this organ. The most common form of oncology of the bladder is a transitional cell type. In women, the disease mainly occurs at the age of 40-60 years.
Cancer of the bladder in women - causes
Cancer of the bladder in women can occur in two main forms of growth:
- Invasive, in which cancer tissues germinate through the wall of the organ and are introduced into the structures of the adjacent tissues of the body.
- Non-invasive. The tumor during the growth does not go beyond the bladder.
A reliable cause of the development of cancer of the bladder has not been established to date. Doctors-oncologists point to the existence of cancer risk factors:
- presence of industrial dyes and other carcinogens in food;
- bad habits and abuse of strong alcoholic beverages;
- chronic inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs;
- parasitic infection of the bladder;
- genetic predisposition and birth defects of the body;
- habit of holding urine for a long time;
- irradiation of the given area by ionizing radiation.
Bladder cancer in women - symptoms
The first complaint with which patients refer to a doctor is the presence of blood content in the urine. Hematuria is observed in 95% of patients with malignant neoplasms of the bladder. The microhematuria is determined only in laboratory conditions, and the macrohematuria can be diagnosed independently by the characteristic rusty color of urine.
Blood in the urine is considered a very serious symptomatic factor and suggests immediate treatment for specialized medical care.
Also, very often patients often complain of painful urination. Many oncological patients report irregularities in the frequency of acts of urination.
In advanced stages of the disease, women experience acute attacks of pain in the lower third of the abdomen, loss of appetite, decreased performance, fast fatigue and weight loss.
Hemorrhagicsigns of bladder cancer in womenrequire additional diagnostic methods to establish the form of the disease.
The most informative way of studying the bladder is a cytoscopy, which includes a visual examination of the internal cavity of the organ. In the course of a cytoscopic examination, a small part of the affected tissue is mainly taken for biopsy. In the laboratory, specialists carry out a histological and cytological analysis of biological material, which gives the opportunity to establish a definitive diagnosis indicating the tissue affiliation of the tumor, the degree of differentiation and stage disease.
In addition, the oncologist recommends that the patient undergo a CT scan, which visualizes the internal structure of the malignant neoplasm. Ultrasound examination, which is also subjected to the patient, makes it possible to assess external boundaries and saturation of pathology.
Metastaticsymptoms of bladder cancer in womensuggest an X-ray examination of the bone system.
Treatment of bladder cancer in women
The tactics of therapeutic intervention depend on the stage of oncology and the extent of the cancer process. Treatment of bladder cancer in women should be comprehensive and consist of the following methods:
- Surgical intervention:
The operative method of therapy consists in the radical removal of cancerous tissues. In the early stages of oncological pathology during surgery, it is mainly possible to keep the affected organ. Tumor bladder when germinating through the inner wall of the organ causes cardinal surgery with the subsequent formation of the cavity from the intestinal tissue. Ureteral plastic is needed to restore urination.
Systemic use of cytotoxic agents is recommended to be performed in the postoperative period to reduce the likelihood of relapse. Undoubted advantage of the technique is the complex effect of pharmacological drugs against cancer on the whole organism.
- Radiation therapy:
The therapeutic use of highly active ionizing radiation is performed immediately after surgery to destroy the possible remaining cancer cells.
Cancer of the bladder, diagnosed in the first or second stage of a malignant neoplasm, is considered a cavity curable. Conversely, for patients in advanced stages of the disease, which are accompanied by damage to distant organs and regional lymph nodes, the prognosis is unfavorable.
Cancer of the bladder, depending on the stage of the disease, causes different indicators postoperative survival, which at an early stage become 75-85%, and at the advanced stages of 25-30%. The formation of metastases in distant organs and systems forms a negative prognosis of the disease, in which a five-year survival rate does not exceed 5%.
Therefore, it is very important to diagnose the tumor in time, which ultimately increases the quality and duration of life of the cancer..