Causes and therapy of paroxysmal tachycardia
Paroxysmal tachycardia is a disorder of the heart rhythm associated with high excitability of the nervous system of the organ muscle. This pathology is similar to extrasystole and ciliary arrhythmia, but it has other degrees of development and causes. What is paroxysmal tachycardia, its symptoms and treatment? How to relieve an attack?
- What factors cause heart disease?
- What are the types of the disease?
- Symptoms of the disease
- Tachycardia in pregnant women
- Pathology of the heart in children
- How to identify the pathology of the heart?
- How to provide first aid to the patient?
- Admission of medications to combat heart disease
- Operative intervention
What factors cause heart disease?
The reasons for which there is supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia of the heart are different. Nadzheludochkovaya pathology can appear due to the following factors:
- Features of the structure of the human heart, the presence of additional channels for impulses.
- Overdose of medical preparations (cardiac glycosides).
- Disorders of the nervous system and psyche.
- Frequent stressful situations, excessive adrenaline rush.
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages, smoking and narcotic substances.
- Pathologies of the thyroid gland, which cause excess production of hormones.
- Any serious illness that causes poisoning of the body.
There is a ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia, the reasons for which are as follows:
- Ischemic heart disease, which proceeds in chronic form.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Myocarditis of any type.
- Congenital heart defects.
From the above factors of pathology development it can be concluded that supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia arises from general disturbances in the body. While the ventricular pathology appears due to diseases of the heart itself..
What are the types of the disease?
Specialists distinguish several varieties of paroxysmal tachycardia. They differ in the clinical picture and in the localization of the formation of the ectopic node.
Depending on the manifestation of symptoms, the pathology is divided into the following forms:
- Acute, in which the signs are disturbed for a certain period of time.
- Chronic, lasting for a fairly long time and leading to the expansion of the heart cavities, causing heart failure.
- Recurrent, occurs again some time after the therapy of tachycardia.
Depending on the localization of the focus, these types of tachycardia are distinguished:
- Atrial tachycardia. It occurs more often than others. With her, the greatest frequency of cardiac contractions is observed. The focus of excitation is localized in the atrium to the left or right. There is a replacement for the sinus node, the number of contractions increases significantly. However, these impulses differ rhythmically and lead directly to the ventricles.
- Atrial-ventricular, or nodular, tachycardia. Often appears in the atrioventricular (av) node of the reciprocal type. The heart contracted less often than with the previous form of pathology. Paroxysmal autonomic reciprocal tachycardia drives impulses into the ventricles, and then back to the atria.
Atrioventricular nodal reciprocal tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia are included in a large group supraventricular heart disease, because the focus of excitation is located just above the channels of impulses ventricles..
- Ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia is rarely diagnosed. Occurs when there are strong changes in the heart. The patient does not have a clear rhythm of contractions, because the atria contract when they are affected by sinus pulses. This type of pathology is dangerous, as it can cause serious complications in the work of the heart.
Symptoms of the disease
Paroxysmal sinus tachycardia manifests itself unexpectedly, and under the influence of provoking factors, and in a happy state. The patient understands when the disease begins and when it comes to an end. The onset of an attack is characterized by a push in the heart zone, after which there are attacks of rapid heartbeats of varying intensity and duration.
The patient, suffering from paroxysm, notes the following symptoms of paroxysmal tachycardia:
- Dizziness, fainting.
- Weakness in the body, noise in the head.
- Lack of air.
- Pain in the heart, resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the body.
- Feeling "as if the heart is compressed in the chest."
- Violation of speech activity, sensitivity.
- Increased sweating, nausea, gas.
- Extra volume of urine, allocated at the first time of an attack. During the day, urination normalizes. It also appears at the end of an attack, because the muscle tissue of the bladder relaxes.
- Low body temperature.
These clinical manifestations of sinus tachycardia are more disturbing than patients who suffer from myocardial damage. With the end of the attack, the patient feels significant relief, he is easily given breath. The illness ends with a jolt or a feeling that the heart is frozen in the chest.
Tachycardia in pregnant women
Many future mothers are interested in the question: "Is paroxysmal tachycardia dangerous during pregnancy?" Rapid palpitation negatively affects the quality of life, because it is disturbed by unpleasant symptoms. If a woman does not treat pathology, then after the birth of a child, she can not escape.
In pregnancy, this disorder can occur due to exacerbation of chronic diseases. The most dangerous is tachycardia, which has a connection with diseases of the cardiovascular system, because it can pose a threat to the life of the mother and child. An increased heart rate increases the risk of complications during childbirth and childbirth.
Pathology of the heart in children
Paroxysmal tachycardia attack in a child appears with psychoemotional overstrain, in rare cases, excessive physical activity can become the culprit. Many babies feel well how the attack approaches, how it ends.
Paroxysmal tachycardia in children is accompanied by obvious violations of hemodynamics. There is a reduction in shock emission, an increase in peripheral resistance. Because of this, blood circulation suffers. There is a paroxysmal pain syndrome.
In the course of an attack of paroxysmal tachycardia, the children notice a strong pulsation in the neck, pallor skin, excessive sweating, bluish shade of lips, mouth, elevated body temperature, chills. Paroxysmal tachycardia in newborns results in the release of a large volume of urine of light color.
Children, depending on the age and individual characteristics of the psyche, respond differently to the attack of tachycardia. Someone is going through it calmly, doing ordinary things. Therefore, parents do not always have the opportunity to detect an attack.
If the paroxysmal tachycardia in children lasts a long time, then the general condition of the child noticeably worsens. The child begins to behave restlessly, feel as if the heart wants to jump out of the chest, feel strong pulsation in the temples, dizziness, lethargy, lack of oxygen, nausea, vomiting. In this case, it is necessary to treat paroxysmal tachycardia in children.
How to identify the pathology of the heart?
The diagnosis of paroxysmal tachycardia is simple. When visiting a doctor, the patient is sent first to an electrocardiogram. It reflects the following changes:
- If there is a paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, a true sinus rhythm is observed on the ECG, the pulse rate is 140-250 beats per minute. The tooth P, which demonstrates the impulse from the sinoatrial node to the atria, is in front of the ventricular complex. However, its amplitude is reduced. Violations in the ventricular complex on the ECG with paroxysmal tachycardia are not noticed.
- Paroxysmal pathology of the atrio-ventricular node is shown on the ECG with a negative P wave, which is located after the ventricular complex or is absent altogether. The very same QRS is normal.
- Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia on the ECG is manifested by the fact that the rhythm of the atria and ventricles differs. There is a tooth P, but it is not clearly visible, and the ventricular complex is damaged and expanded.
Paroxysmal tachycardia on the ECG is clearly visible, but the doctor, in addition to electrocardiograms, can assign such differentiated diagnostic measures:
- ECG monitoring.
- Ultrasonic examination of the heart.
- Electrophysiological examination, which is used for supraventricular disease and is performed through the esophagus.
- Samples after physical activity.
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.
For each patient, the differential diagnosis scheme is compiled individually.
How to provide first aid to the patient?
If a person finds an attack of pathology, then you need to call a doctor. But before his arrival, emergency care is necessary for paroxysmal tachycardia. It is carried out as follows:
- Put the man in bed.
- To check consciousness, breathing, heartbeat, pressure of the patient. In the case of their absence, to conduct an indirect cardiac massage, and to make artificial respiration.
- Open the pane to ensure that sufficient air is supplied. It is important to unfasten clothing, remove any objects that may complicate the breathing process.
- Ask the person to take deep breaths, delay breathing and slow exhalations.
- Press gently on the eyeballs and on the solar plexus zone, located in the peritoneum.
- Massage the area of the neck where the carotid arteries are.
Such first aid will help to arrest an attack of paroxysmal tachycardia.
Admission of medications to combat heart disease
When a patient is concerned about mild paroxysmal orthodontic tachycardia, which is not accompanied by severe clinical manifestations, to eliminate the attack can be through the action of emergency care for paroxysmal tachycardia, no special treatment is required.
If there are bright signs of paroxysmal tachycardia, drugs will be needed to eliminate them. Usually, the following medicines are used: "Digoxin "Amiodarone "Lidocaine "Mezaton".
In addition to pills and other means for paroxysms, patients are prescribed electropulse therapy to relieve paroxysmal tachycardia. Its essence lies in the impact on the heart with the help of electrical impulses. Conduct such treatment of ports if a pronounced or prolonged ventricular disease is detected, which is accompanied by fibrillation or may lead to cardiac arrest.
Operative intervention is resorted to in cases where tachycardia leads to obvious problems with blood circulation in the body or when the attacks occur disturb the patient too often and long. Doctors use two methods of surgical care:
- Radiofrequency ablation. It consists in the removal of the affected area in the heart. It is done by using radio-frequency waves, which are brought to the organ through a catheter. Ablation is quite effective and does not harm the body.
- Installation of a pacemaker. This device is an artificial source of electrical impulses, with the help of which the rhythm of cardiac contractions is normalized.
The prognosis after surgery is quite favorable. But to enhance the effect and the inadmissibility of relapse, the patient will have to adjust the way of life. If you do not treat paroxysmal tachycardia, then it will progress and cause negative consequences... .