The mechanism of formation of pathological target red blood cells in the blood plasma


Targeted erythrocytes is a kind of pathological form of erythrocytes, having flat outlines with a low concentration of hemoglobin, located in the central part of the cell. This type of blood cell appears in thalassemia. It differs from healthy forms by densification in the center, where hemoglobin accumulates. Hemoglobin cells create a spot of high saturation characteristic of the target circle. Occasionally, the contrast ring reacts with the bridging area.

What are the pathological forms?

This spot is shifted into a helmet shape formed along the edges of the membrane. To understand how the target red blood cells are formed, you can use an elastic ball as an example. Dents increase until you touch the tops, then the bottom of the softest dent protrudes, forming a bulge where the excess surface concentrates. Because of the weak stability of the central bulge, provoked by an excess surface, formation of bridges, helmet-shaped hills and strips begins.


  • Characteristics of the morphology of target cells
  • Erythrocytes in a blood test
  • The causes of the pathophysiology of cells
  • Methods of treatment

Characteristics of the morphology of target cells

There is little hemoglobin in the target red blood cell. In the classification of normal erythrocytes should be 30 percent of hemoglobin from the volume of the cell. Lack of substance causes a reduction in cell volume, the formation of a flat shape.

The change in the shape of red blood cells leads to the fact that they become rigid, flat and thin. The diameter of the cell grows to, μm. Too large size and high density of erythrocyte causes the difficulty of passing through the capillaries. This is the reason for the formation of contractions. Large cellular tangential and tensile strains of droplet form appear in the cell wall. The formations destroy the cellular structure along the equator. The stratified erythrocyte is transformed from the target into a stellate cell.

Deformation of the membrane

Attention! In veterinary medicine, in the study of the blood of animals, deformed degenerative blood cells are also detected.

Erythrocytes in a blood test

Erythrocytes of a target type in a sample of peripheral blood arise when the value of the peripheral cell membrane becomes larger than the amount of hemoglobin contained in it. Therefore, target cells indicate the growth of the cell membrane in patients with hepatic disease, with hypochromia and iron deficiency anemia of the third degree, when the concentration of intracellular hemoglobin decreases. This phenomenon occurs in people with poikilocytosis, anisocytosis, thalassemia and iron deficiency.

The appearance of target red blood cells and altered leukocytes is characteristic for the analysis of patients with certain types of regenerative hemoglobin disorders. For example: hemoglobin C and S. is considered to be abnormal. In such a situation, deformed cells are formed due to the aggregation of unhealthy hemoglobin. These diseases occur in both the child and the adult.


The causes of the pathophysiology of cells

In liver diseases, target cells are formed because of the high accumulation of lipids on the membrane walls of erythrocytes. This increases the size of the cell surface relative to the cytoplasm. Unlike the cells of the target type that appear in thalassemia, called "microcytomas deformed erythrocytes in hepatic pathologies are macro-cytoplasm. The average volume of such cells is 110 fl.

The strongest influence on the formation of macro-cells is alcoholism. This process does not depend on liver disease or lack of cobalamin or folate. Here, the reason for the deformation of the membrane walls of erythrocytes, associated with aldehyde particles - the substances formed due to the activity of ethanol.

Echinocytes have small denticles covering the surface of the erythrocyte membrane. Despite the fact that these cells are rarely found in blood samples, especially if there is little albumin in it, echinocytes are found in acute hepatic and renal failure.

Methods of treatment

Targeted erythrocytes, which appeared against the background of alcohol dependence or excess of salt in the body, are a serious problem. Therefore, it is necessary to solve it right after, how the diagnosis is made. If we ignore the phenomenon, then in the cell membrane, tensile stresses are subsequently observed, which leads to the destruction of red blood cells. Having reached maturity, the target red blood cells are transformed into stellate cells, and the health condition is aggravated.

For the treatment of herbs are prescribed on the basis of lime and chamomile. In some cases, prescribed medications that improve the patient's condition.

Leaving pathology without treatment, the patient runs the risk of serious liver disease. Therefore, the indicators should be taken seriously. The earlier to begin treatment, the easier it is to overcome the pathological processes in the body.

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