The causes of the appearance of plaques in the vessels, signs of cerebral atherosclerosis, symptoms and diagnosis


Arteriosclerosis is a pathological narrowing of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis is often called arterial calcification. Healthy arteries are elastic and muscular and adapt to stressful situations. Arteries (except the pulmonary arteries) carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body.

Vessels of the head

With arteriosclerosis, substances dissolved in the blood (cholesterol) accumulate on the vessel wall. During this process, other substances (calcium) are formed. These calcium-cholesterol deposits alter the inner wall of the vessel. It becomes hard and swells. As a result of stenosis of the vessel, the lumen narrows, which leads to circulatory disturbances in the areas of the plaque affected by the artery.

Attention! A particular danger of arteriosclerosis is that the narrowed vessels can be blocked by a blood clot (thrombus). As a result, myocardial infarction or stroke may occur. Men are more likely to suffer from a stroke than women.


  • What are the symptoms of vascular arteriosclerosis?
  • Why do cholesterol plaques arise in the vessels of the brain?
  • How is the arteriosclerosis of the brain diagnosed?
  • How to get rid of cholesterol plaques in the vessels of the brain?
    • Atherosclerotic plaques in cerebral vessels: treatment by invasive intervention
    • Aortocoronary bypass surgery
    • Self-help
  • What methods of preventing atherosclerotization of blood vessels exist?

What are the symptoms of vascular arteriosclerosis?

Symptoms of atherosclerosis are noticeable when there are consequences. The type of symptomatology depends on where the arteries are narrowed.

Disturbances of blood circulation in the legs lead to occlusive disease of the peripheral arteries (OZPA). The legs are very painful when walking, and then in a state of rest.

Pathology of the vessels of the legs

Important! Another type of atherosclerosis in the legs is the "smoker's leg". In the case of this disease, caused by nicotine, the tissue slowly dies on the toes, ankles, because it is poorly supplied with oxygen by compressed arteries. In some cases, amputation of the lower extremities is required.


The narrowing of the coronary vessels leads to myocardial infarction, characterized by the complete closure of the lumen of the affected coronary arteries. These heart complaints are among the most dangerous complications of arteriosclerosis. If sclerotic plaques lead to a complete narrowing of the cerebral vessels, a stroke occurs.

Violation of blood circulation in cerebral vessels leads to violations of neurological functions: memory impairment, dizziness or confusion. However, depending on which vessel is affected, pathological symptoms can occur in different parts of the body. Examples of this are paralysis of the hands or feet, visual disturbances. If the narrowing of the vessel is excessive or the cerebral vessel bursts, a stroke occurs.

Vessel rupture

Why do cholesterol plaques arise in the vessels of the brain?

Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, but the causes of arteriosclerosis in most cases stem from the patient's lifestyle. Risk is characterized by individual behavior. The following risk factors contribute to the formation of arterial plaques:

  • High levels of fats in the blood (cholesterol and others): mainly high concentrations of LDL increase the formation of plaques.
  • Hypertension: high blood pressure places the vessels heavier, and they wear out more quickly.
  • Overweight: causes hypertension or high concentration of cholesterol.
  • Smoking: because nicotine narrows the blood vessels, blood circulation deteriorates.
  • Stress (which can cause hypertension).
  • Diabetes mellitus: because blood fats are "sweetened they quickly settle on the walls of blood vessels.
  • Age: the risk of vascular atherosclerosis increases markedly in old age.
  • Hypodinamy.
  • Genetic predisposition: genes play a role in the sclerotization of blood vessels.

How is the arteriosclerosis of the brain diagnosed?

For an accurate diagnosis of arterial stenosis, the physician must first detect the localization and degree of narrowing of the vessel using special survey methods. Methods for diagnosing arteriosclerosis can be quite unpleasant if, for example, the condition of the arteries is assessed by catheterization.

How to get rid of cholesterol plaques in the vessels of the brain?

For cleaning arteriosclerosis, a doctor can use a number of active medications that facilitate blood circulation and the structural state of the arteries. It is a means of stimulating blood circulation, lowering blood pressure or drugs for dilution of blood. There are drugs to reduce cholesterol or fat in the blood. Doctors usually recommend changing the diet, which can clean the vessels from the plaques, move more. There are medicines that improve the structural state of the vessels.

OTC and folk remedies for the treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis:

  • The use of tablets with Ginkgo has a positive effect on blood flow.
  • The intake of garlic preparations in sufficient dosage improves blood flow characteristics, lowers cholesterol.
  • Preparations containing omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of precipitation of calcium-cholesterol plaques in the arteries. Designed to improve the rheological properties of blood and reduce cholesterol, blood pressure.
  • Regular intake of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) improves blood circulation. However, before using aspirin, you should consult your doctor.

Atherosclerotic plaques in cerebral vessels: treatment by invasive intervention

In the early stages of arteriosclerosis, the doctor has the opportunity to improve the functional and structural state of the affected vessels. For this purpose, the affected artery is stabilized in surgery by stenting.

But to be able to install a stent, the artery must be so narrow that the surgeon can make the necessary expansion of the affected area. If this is not possible, mini-invasive interventions are performed.

Aortocoronary bypass surgery

In particularly severe cases of arteriosclerosis, when there is no choice but to provide bypass blood flow to the narrowed or occluded artery, aortocoronary bypass surgery is performed. In this operation, the vein is taken from the patient's body and the necessary (alternative) blood circulation to the organ is created.


Self-help with arteriosclerosis is especially effective when the patient reduces risk factors. If a patient consumes foods that are low in fat, gets rid of excess weight, moves more, does not smoke, adheres to the treatment regimen, the risk of developing recurrent arteriosclerosis is largely decreases.

What methods of preventing atherosclerotization of blood vessels exist?

There are many ways that can prevent atherosclerosis. But the patient must do everything to minimize the risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Can help yourself by using foods that are low in fat, fruits, vegetables and regular exercise (help walks lasting 20 minutes) in the fresh air. Take psychotropic substances, alcohol and coffee, you can in moderation. Refrain from smoking. The following tips help prevent atherosclerosis:

  • Regular monitoring of blood pressure, cholesterol and lipids in the blood.
  • Eat low cholesterol foods: exclude oil, eggs and a lot of meat products saturated with fats (in the form of fat sausage) and trans fats (fried foods: French fries or chips).
  • Diabetics should always make sure that the sugar level is in the normal ranges.
  • People with obesity must necessarily remove extra pounds.

Patients should avoid stress and use relaxation techniques: autogenic training, yoga or progressive muscle relaxation according to Jacobson.


Advice! Timely cleaning and treatment of progressive arteriosclerosis will help prevent cardiovascular disasters.

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