All about menstruation cycle

Any changes in the usual rhythm of the regular menstrual period may indicate the manifestation of pathology or the onset of pregnancy.

What is the menstrual cycle


The female cycle is the number of days from the first day of menstrual bleeding to the beginning of the next menstruation. The length of the cycle for a girl is 21-35 days (an average of 28 days). Menstruation can normally last from 3 to 7 weeks. The number of days between menstruations depends on the individual characteristics of the female body.

Cycle phases

The period between monthly bleeding is divided into phases.

The first phase - menstruation

What day can be considered the beginning of the menstrual cycle? Endometrium - the inner layer of the uterus - is renewed in the absence of conception. His rejection causes bleeding from the genital tract of a woman. The first day of the appearance of bloody discharge should be considered the beginning of the cycle in women. So the first phase begins.


Allocations last from 3 days to a week. In some cases, the period of menstruation may increase. Then bleeding becomes a dangerous condition for health.


Causes of lengthening of menstruation:

  • hormonal disbalance;
  • tumors of the uterus;
  • endometrial hyperplasia;
  • complications with oral contraceptives;
  • postpartum period;
  • miscarriage or abortion;
  • pathology of the blood coagulation system.

The second phase is follicular

The second phase begins after the end of bleeding. The main goal of this period is maturation of a new egg. The process occurs under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland of the brain. Estrogens also have an effect in this period. Hormones are actively produced by the ovaries.

The second phase lasts until the middle of the cycle. With a cycle of 28 days, the 2 phase ends on 12-14 days, which is 7-9 days after the end of menstruation. The minimum duration of the follicular phase is 7 days (the total length of the cycle will be 21 days).

The third phase is ovulation

Ovulation is the middle of the cycle. This phase is characterized by the final maturation of the egg and its release from the follicle. The egg lives only 24 hours, after which it dies.

The fourth phase is luteal

After ovulation in the ovaries begins to form a yellow body. It produces mainly progesterone and partially estrogens during this period. If at this time the egg is fertilized, the endometrium thickens to take a zygote.

In the absence of pregnancy, a gradual atrophy of the yellow body occurs. Secretion of sex hormones decreases dramatically. As a result of these factors, the blood circulation of the endometrium is reduced. The egg dies, and the inner layer of the uterus begins to flake off.

This phase takes 12-14 days, and its duration practically does not change. The new offensive of critical days indicates the beginning of the next cycle.

Phases of the menstrual cycle: table

Phase name Average duration Effect of hormones Phase Characteristics
Menstruation 3-7 days Estrogen Endometrial rejection
Follicular from 7 days Follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogens Maturation of the egg
Ovulation 24 hours Estrogens, a luteinizing hormone Egg release from the follicle
Luteal 10 days Progesterone, a luteinizing hormone The egg is fertilized or dies. The endometrium is prepared for renewal in the absence of pregnancy.

What is ovulation

Ovulation is the process of the emergence of a mature egg from the follicle. Then the egg gets into the uterine tube and moves along it towards the uterus. So the body is preparing for a possible conception. Ovulation usually occurs in the middle of the cycle.

Normal cycle time

The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is within the range of 21 to 35 days. The duration of the biocycle can normally fluctuate in one woman within 3 days in both directions in different months.

Important! When taking oral contraceptives, the female cycle is set constant. In this case, it can be the same number of days each month.

How to calculate the cycle of monthly

How are cycle days for women considered? For correct orientation in the cycles of women's days, it is necessary to mark the first day of each menstruation on the calendar. It will be clear when the first critical day will be next month. In the middle of this general period, ovulation occurs. On the day of ovulation and 3 days before it, there is a maximum possibility to become pregnant.

How to keep the calendar of the menstrual cycle? For the effectiveness of keeping the calendar, it will be sufficient to mark the first and last day of menstruation.

If there is a desire for a woman, she can use electronic women's calendars. To do this, you need to install a special application in your smartphone.

How many monthly periods last

The first day of the menstrual cycle is considered from the moment of the appearance of the first bloody discharge.

Important! If the spotting began late in the evening, it would be advisable to mark the next day in the calendar as "red" as the beginning of menstruation. This recommendation will help to prevent confusion in the number of menstruation days.

Menstruation of a healthy woman lasts for 3-7 days. The specialists consider termination of red or brown discharge as its end.

Is the daub of the first day of the cycle? The dawn or brown scant excretions of gynecologists are excluded from menstruation days. Normally, this process can be observed for several days to the present menstrual days, depending on the individual characteristics of the female body.

Premenstrual syndrome

PMS includes the whole complex of changes in the girl's body. These changes can affect many aspects of health and appearance. The degree of these manifestations in all female persons is different. Many may simply not notice such changes.

In some cases, the symptoms of PMS can lead to disability and conflict with others. In such cases, the doctor to stabilize the general condition can appoint sedatives, painkillers or hormones.

Symptoms of the premenstrual state:

  1. Changes in appearance. Swelling on the face and appearance of pimples.
  2. Sharp mood swings.
  3. Increased appetite.
  4. Weight gain. This aspect arises from the retention of sodium in the body. Sodium retains excess water in the body tissues.
  5. Pain in the lower abdomen and in the mammary glands.
  6. Swelling of mammary glands.

Possible violations

It happens that the cycle of a lady changes suddenly. In this case, they speak of hormonal failure. In such situations it is necessary to undergo examination at the gynecologist.

Failure modes:

  • increase in the cycle for more than 35 days;
  • reduction of the cycle is less than 21 days;
  • change in the nature of menstrual flow: they become abundant or, conversely, meager.
  • change in the number of menstruation days in any direction;
  • the occurrence of severe pain during menstrual bleeding.

Causes of failure:

  • stress;
  • deficiency of microelements and vitamins;
  • malnutrition;
  • physical overstrain;
  • low or excessive body weight;
  • endocrine diseases;
  • side effects of taking oral contraceptives;
  • diseases of the uterus and appendages.

Cycle and conception

For the onset of a desired pregnancy, partners should focus on ovulation in the middle of the cycle. The egg is capable of fertilization within 24 hours after exiting from the ovary. Spermatozoa live within the female body until a week after the last sexual intercourse. Therefore, a favorable period for conception experts consider the day of ovulation and 3-7 days before it.

Basal temperature

Measurement of basal temperature helps to more accurately determine the willingness of the egg to fertilization. Correct basal temperature measurement is performed immediately after waking up in the morning in the rectum or vagina. On the onset of ovulation says a rise in temperature above 37 degrees.

Diagnosis of pathology

For any sudden change in the monthly cycle, consult a doctor. The condition in this case can complicate the appearance of pain or various unconditioned secretions.

Methods of diagnosis:

  • gynecological examination;
  • general blood and urine tests for the presence of an inflammatory process;
  • a blood test for hormones;
  • smears of excretion on the microflora;
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

Possible diseases

Failure in monthly physiological blood loss can result in a variety of pathologies of hormonal and somatic nature.

These include:

  • functional disorders in the pituitary, adrenal, or thyroid gland;
  • liver disease;
  • impaired blood clotting;
  • operations on the organs of the female sexual sphere;
  • reception of hormones, antidepressants, anticoagulants;
  • polyps inside the uterus;
  • inflammation of the endometrium;
  • uterine myoma;
  • endometriosis;
  • endometrial hyperplasia;
  • cysts and ovarian tumors;
  • oncological processes of the pelvic organs.


In order to select the right therapy, it is necessary to find out the cause of the failure. Treatment in the first place can be aimed at eliminating the symptoms: stop blood loss, anesthetize, restore the general condition with the help of fortifying vitamin solutions intravenously.

After the statement of the exact diagnosis the doctor prescribes medical hormonal therapy. When detecting polyps or a tumor inside the uterus, surgical intervention is required. Antibiotics will be needed to eliminate inflammation. Treatment of a malfunction of the menstrual cycle should be comprehensive and aimed at eliminating the underlying disease.


  • infertility;
  • anemia;
  • blood loss incompatible with life;
  • progression of the underlying disease without its treatment;
  • attachment of secondary pathology.

Menstrual cycle in women: normal duration and phase

Normally, the period of the menstrual cycle in women can not exceed 35 days and be less than 21 days. For each phase of monthly changes, the effect of certain hormones is required. The duration of each period depends on the individual differences of the girl herself. For the calculation of phases, it should be understood that ovulation occurs in the middle of each cycle. Before it, the ovum ripens (the follicular phase), and a few days after ovulation in the luteal phase, a gradual decrease in the secretion of hormones occurs. Begins to reject the endometrium, which leads to the onset of monthly physiological bleeding.

All about the menstrual cycle: Frequently Asked Questions

The 43 day cycle is normal?

The cycle can not normally exceed 35 days. Consultation of a specialist and examination is necessary. This periodization can indicate the presence of pathology in the body.

What is the time (interval) between monthly?

To calculate the period between monthly, you should subtract the days of menstruation from the total number of days in the cycle. Experts advise for correct calculations to take into account only the first days of the beginning of menstruation. This is quite enough to navigate in its state for a certain moment.

What day is considered the beginning of the menstrual cycle?

The beginning of the cycle is always the first day of menstrual bleeding.

A careful attitude to your body will help to avoid many health problems. You can not ignore the manifestation of any unusual factors in your health. The failure of periodicity leads to a lot of lamentable consequences. Therefore, any violation must be under the control of a specialist.