Oncomarkers of the thyroid gland
Cancer of the thyroid gland today has every chance to become the most common oncological disease.
Palpation of nodes in this area reveals a neoplasm in 3-5% of adults. Ultrasonic diagnostics reveals 50% of oncoforms. Most of these lesions are benign, but 7-29% are considered malignant tumors. Consequently, thyroid cancer is the most common pathology of the endocrine system.
For this reason, the key goal of modern medical development is the definition of the most invasive and economically sound method of early diagnosis. At that timethycopic markercan replace a large number of diagnostic procedures, which in some cases are harmful to the patient's health.
Monitoring of these substances is a potentially powerful tool for achieving timely oncodiagnostics.
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Thyreoglobulin - a marker on the thyroid gland
TG is a glycoprotein, which is synthesized by follicular cells of the thyroid gland. The papillary and follicular form of carcinoma retains the ability to synthesize this substance. Thus, thyroglobulin is used to determine the oncology or relapse in patients who underwent operative organ removal.
TG is not used as an oncological factor of the primary tumor, because its level affects the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the size of the thyroid tissue and chronic inflammatory disease.
During the interpretation of the results of the examination, doctors take into account the following:
- What is the primary oncological help the patient received.
- The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in test blood withdrawal.
- Change in indicators for a certain period of time.
- The presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin in patients.
How to improve the effectiveness of the test?
Recent scientific experiments have revealed that 10-25% of people have antibodies to TG. Among such patients, the highest oncological morbidity is observed. The presence of antibodies significantly reduces the effectiveness of the study. Doctors propose to lower the level of antibodies for this category of patients before the testing procedure. Also, an increased amount of antibodies to TG is considered a direct indication for the implementation of detailed diagnostics in the form of ultrasonic and X-ray techniques.
Analysis of the concentration of thyroglobulin in the preoperative period
Many specialists to this day do not consider it necessary to measure TG before surgery. They justify this by the fact that a high level of this substance does not indicate malignant education.
However, a high level of TG in cancer is a positive sign, which allows after radical organ excision to effectively control the likelihood of relapse. Conversely, a small amount of a marker before surgery prevents qualitative prevention of the recurrence of the disease.
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Why give oncomarkers of the thyroid gland?
General indications for oncotest:
- Radical surgery to remove thyroid tissue.
- Pain syndrome and a sense of "discomfort" in the cervical region.
- Sudden hoarseness of voice and hoarseness.
- Condensation and soreness of the cervical lymph nodes.
- Attacks of chronic cough.
- Psycho-emotional disorders.
See also: Papillary carcinoma: photo, treatment, prognosis
How to prepare for the analysis?
Doctors recommend all laboratory tests to be performed on an empty stomach, which includes giving up food and water for 6-8 hours before taking blood. Also, a few days before the test, patients should limit themselves to eating fatty and fried foods. Moreover, it is unacceptable to take any medications, tobacco and alcohol abuse.
The normal indicator of the tumor marker is up to 10 ng / ml. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the concentration of antibodies, which can reduce the effectiveness of the test.
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The average cost of the procedure is about US $ 20. Together with this diagnosis, the doctor will need a general and detailed blood tests.
In oncologic practice, the reading of the results of the study is made according to the average concentration of the marker, which was analyzed for five days. Evaluation of the result allows you to make the following conclusions:
- The patient has cancer cells, which requires additional diagnostic tools.
- Presence of metastases in nearby regional lymph nodes.
- The development of cancer recurrence.
- Formation of distant foci of malignant growth.
What it is necessary to know before to hand over onkomarkery a thyroid gland?
Some laboratories offer tokobolnomu the possibility of storing all blood samples. This makes it possible to trace the dynamics of changes in the qualitative characteristics of the plasma with high accuracy. Repeated decoding of the tumor activity indicators indicates an early relapse and provides scant information about the size of the tumor and its distribution.
The oncologist should remember that a positive test on the marker does not yet mean cancer. Often in this area, benign neoplasms are formed, which have a favorable outcome of therapy.
Oncomarkers of the thyroid glandrequire confirmation of the diagnosis radiological way, during which doctors identify the location and size of the tumor. The final diagnosis in each clinical case is made on the basis of a biopsy. Only the histological and cytological analyzes of biological material determine the form and stage of oncology..