Why do adults suffer from atopic dermatitis? Prevention measures!
Atopic dermatitis is a skin disease with a chronic character, the course of which is followed by periods of exacerbations and remissions. In common parlance it is called diathesis, in medicine - allergic dermatitis, infantile eczema and neurodermatitis.
Previously, doctors had to face manifestations of pathology in patients of childhood.But today the dermatitis "aged" - with strange eruptions on the body are now hurry to the doctor and adults.
Why do adults suffer from atopic dermatitis?
In older people, the development of neurodermatitis is explained by genetic predisposition. If in the family someone suffers from allergies in different forms of manifestation (food variety, pollinosis, bronchial asthma and etc.), it is possible that adverse reactions will develop in the subsequent offspring and will damage the skin of the relatives a life.
In this case, doctors identify several factors that push the body to launch a negative process:
- treatment with drugs. With prolonged and not dosed intake of antibiotics in adults, signs of neurodermatitis may appear. In women, the use of contraceptives can be an impetus to exacerbate the pathology.
- Living in an environmentally bad environment. Dirty gassed air, labor participation in harmful industries, irrational nutrition and even passive smoking reduce the protective functions of the body. In such conditions, the disease worsens.
- Contacts with animal hair, pollen of plants, household chemicals and fish food are another category of causes of atopic dermatitis in the elderly.
- Intolerance to certain foods also provokes exacerbation of eczema or aggravates its course.
- The increased sensitivity of the skin - a factor leading to their irritation with clothing made from coarse materials. This includes the effects of shampoos and detergents for body hygiene. Their some components exacerbate pathology and spoil the appearance of the skin.
A separate item among all factors is the weak human immune system. Failures in her work increase the sensitization of the body to the effects of irritants and trigger the mechanism of atopy. In this case, dermatologists talk about the creation by the immunity of prerequisites for the appearance of signs of diathesis..
Considering the mechanisms of the development of neurodermatitis, it is worth mentioning the problems of digestion. They can affect the defenses of the body, because lymphatic formations in the intestinal mucosa act as natural immunomodulators of the body.
About this factor of atopic dermatitis - Komarovsky says that in the healthy state the last department of the digestive tract creates an obstacle for the penetration of unfavorable factors. But when the digestive system gives a malfunction, harmful substances enter the bloodstream, affect the intestines and intensify allergic reactions. This is how atopy develops.
External manifestations of neurodermatitis
Variability of atopic dermatitis symptoms is determined by specific forms of the disease. But still the main picture is expressed by the itch of skin tissues and the appearance of rashes on them. During periods of remission, problem areas retain dryness and redness.
Consider the signs in more detail:
- itching is a constant companion of dermatitis. When the illness subsides, and the rash disappears, it can bother the person due to irritation of dry skin. Unpleasant feeling on the covers causes them to constantly comb out, which is fraught with penetration into the dermis of the infection.
- Dryness, combined with redness, spoils the appearance of the skin on different parts of the body. To the favorite places of pathology, dermatologists include wrinkles on the body, elbows, knee folds. Some patients suffer from shoulders, neck, face. In these areas, the tissues coarsen and become rough. A conjunctival of a skin - its or her raised or increased dryness, serves as a bright sign of a diathesis.
- Atopic face. This valuable diagnostic criterion is found in people who suffer from pathology for a long time. The face looks tired and pale, on the eyelids deepen the folds. When combing the eyebrows, their thinning and breaking are observed.
Different manifestations of atopic dermatitis in adults are shown in the photo.
Diathesis proceeds in different forms. The erythematous course is characterized by the formation of spots (erythema), scales and papules on the body. Patterns of the patient appear dry and scaly and bother him with severe itching. Elements are localized in the elbows and under the knees.
In lichenoid form, the neurodermatitis proceeds with dryness and the formation of large erythema. Addition to them are papules with an unsightly surface - they are covered with scaly scales of considerable size. An excruciating itching causes the patients to comb the areas of the rashes, so that erosions, cracks, ulcers appear on the body. Lichenoid atopy affects:
- Neck skin;
- popliteal cavities;
- upper back and chest;
- internal ulnar surfaces.
The eczematous form of pathology is inherent in limited areas of dry skin. They bubble and are covered with scales and crusts. Pathological areas accumulate in the ulnar and popliteal folds and affect the brush..
To separate forms of atopy is the involvement of the ear lobe. In this case, behind the crease of the shell, the skin becomes cracked and turns into a bleeding ulcer. When nonspecific dermatitis stops on both extremities appear red foci and cracks. A person is worried about the constant itching and burning..
How is the diagnosis of infantile eczema?
The diagnosis is not difficult. On the covers of the patient there is a specific picture, according to which the form of the disease is determined. To confirm the initial assumption, experts collect anamnesis of the patient's life and scrape the affected areas of the dermis. The patient is also referred to a biochemical blood test. According to their answers, the diagnosis is confirmed and the patient receives appropriate treatment.
The doctor's confidence in the accuracy of the diagnosis is determined by the specific level in the blood plasma of immunoglobulin E. When atopy, it is significantly exceeded. To conduct rational therapy, the specialist should take into account the factor that provoked the exacerbation. To identify the patient subjected to allergological tests.
These tests are painless and simple - the dermatologist applies strips with different kinds of allergens to the skin of the patient's forearm and watches how the tissues react. On the positive reaction to the irritant component, the doctor judges by puffiness and hyperemia in the study site.
Based on the information collected dermatologist diagnoses atopic dermatitis - his code for the ICD 10 - L20. The disease is not of a specified nature, he writes to the hospital sheet as - L20.9, scrapes Bénya registers by classification - L20.0. For other atopic pathologies, a separate designation is provided in the ICD - L20.8.
For adequate therapy, the disease should be distinguished from similar skin problems. These are:
- pink lichen;
- microbial eczema;
- contact and seborrheic dermatitis.
From the early establishment of a reliable diagnosis, the speed and success of achieving positive dynamics depends.
Features of treatment of diathesis
Due to constant itching in patients with atopic dermatitis (Ukrainian sound diagnosis), psychoemotional disorders can occur. Staying in tension and frequent stresses create a fertile ground for atopy, as they are also among the predisposing factors. An important task of treating such patients is the normalization of their emotional background. Only this way it will be possible to achieve the abatement of the aggravated neurodermatitis.
For this purpose patients are prescribed sedatives:
- tranquilizers - Tofizopam and Alprazolam;
- herbal medicines - tinctures herb Leonurus and passionflowers.
Of the tablets for stabilizing the emotional state, Bellataminal, Atarax, Diazepam, Persen, etc. are offered. They give a pronounced calming effect, relieve nervous excitability and act as a sleeping pill.All dosages are selected by a doctor.
An important direction in the treatment of adults from infantile eczema is the restoration of intestinal functions. To support the GIT, patients are offered sorbents and drugs that absorb toxins from the digestive system. In acute period they are prescribed for 7-10 days. With the end of sorbent intake, therapy is continued with eubiotics and probiotics. The drugs will help improve the internal flora of the intestine and restore its protective properties.
- Hilak Forte;
To eliminate enzyme deficiency, older patients are prescribed Panzinorm, Festal, Mezim Forte, etc.
Local treatment of integuments in atopic dermatitis in adults is carried out with the help of corticosteroid agents. Elokom, Lokoid, Afloderm and Advantan relieve inflammation and relieve the course of the disease. At their appointment the expert is guided by the patient's age, the presence of complications and the stage of development of pathology.
To improve the dry skin condition, the patient is offered hypoallergenic moisturizers. Cosmetic agents with the names Topicrem, Mustela, Atoderm have a similar effect. They should be used 5 times a day, and always after bathing. Before applying the drugs on the skin, you need to make sure that it is thoroughly wiped..
The correct approach to treatment with the implementation of preventive measures allows expecting a favorable outcome of neurodermatitis. However, individual characteristics of the organism and accompanying diseases do not allow to get rid of it completely. Outbreaks of exacerbation in humans can occur throughout life..
Diet and prevention as ways to prevent atopy
No matter how diligently the patient is treated, he can not achieve success in getting rid of neurodermatitis without dieting. For allergy sufferers, specialists have developed a special nutrition plan, the name of which is the elimination diet.
Its postulates presuppose the exclusion of the following products from the diet:
- smoked products;
- meat and fish fried foods;
- whole cow's milk;
- food containing dyes, aromatic fragrances and preservatives.
To maintain the body, suffering from atopic dermatitis, patients are invited to eat any vegetables except beets, not flour sorts of bakery products and cereals. From fruits, bananas and apples with green peel will be useful. Meat and fish dishes should be lean. For their preparation it is better to take sunflower or linseed oil. You can not consume potatoes.
As a preventive measure, patients are strongly recommended to strengthen immunity. To do this, they should often be in the fresh air, take acceptable physical activity, perform respiratory gymnastics and swim..
Starch bath will help to remove inflammation from irritated skin. For its preparation, 50 g of potato product is first brewed, and then the mixture is diluted in total water. The procedure is given for 15 minutes..
Abandoning bad habits as a way to heal from neurodermatitis involves the exclusion from the lifestyle of smoking and alcohol use. This point includes the transition to moderate consumption of coffee.
In a period of persistent remission of patients with atopy, it is desirable to receive sanatorium treatment. Moderate reception of sunbathing can achieve its extension. People with problematic skin noticed that in the summer the illness bothers less. This is due to increased humidity and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
In moderate doses, UV radiation gives antipruritic, immunomodulating and anti-allergic effects. Radon and hydrogen sulphide baths will also be of great benefit to patients.