What is contact dermatitis? Looks like!
Simple contact dermatitis is a skin disease that develops at the site of an irritating factor. Foci of lesions on the covers usually appear after the ingress of chemicals, due to the influence of high or low temperatures, pressure or friction.
Skin is a delicate system and a kind of immune organ that reacts to unfavorable factors by hypersensitivity. Dermatitis occurs as an acute and chronic disease, in which irritants cause damage or inflammation of the skin tissues.
Why does the disease develop?
Simple and allergenic forms of pathology develop due to the influence of various exogenous factors. The nature of their occurrence is different, and therefore requires classification and differentiation. So, the causes of contact dermatitis, taking place in a simple form, lie in contacts with a number of substances:
- strong alkalis and acids;
- cosmetic preparations;
- household chemicals;
- chemical substances involved in production processes;
- poisons and irritants contained in plants.
Also, skin damage can occur after exposure to radiation or long exposure to sunlight.
Dermatitis of an allergic nature has many more reasons. As the most frequent among them is allocated plant products, taken for food and capable of causing adverse reactions. Allergens of this group are fruits of citrus trees, celery, onions, asparagus, etc.
Separate groups are metals and substances containing them, as well as components from which rubber is made. The perpetrators of allergic contact dermatitis are such elements and substances as:
- polyurethane, etc.
The reasons for the development of dermatoallergy can serve as preservatives, corticosteroids and other substances that are used in the manufacture of cosmetics, hair dyes, toothpastes. In people who are sensitive to drugs, allergic reactions can occur after the administration of novocaine, lidocaine, neomycin, nitrofurazone and procaine..
Breaking the integrity of the skin is a leading factor in the development of dermatitis. The disease is diagnosed as a professional if the person is in contact with aggressive substances and traumatises the skin in the process of work..
Clinical signs and diagnosis of contact dermatitis
Dermatoses of an allergic nature are manifested by burning and itching of the skin, the appearance of red spots on it. With repeated contacts, puffiness is possible. Short-term interaction with the allergen does not result in prolonged changes in the integument. If irritating substances are to be contacted frequently, the pathology can take months or years to develop.
For example, in children contact dermatitis is able to develop due to the influence of the chemicals that make up diapers. It happens that the disease occurs as a reaction to a pot made of synthetic materials. The clinical picture of the pathology is so specific that it can not be overlooked.
For the acute form of dermatitis, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- itching, burning and swelling of the skin;
- inflammation and redness of the integument;
- covering tissues with papules, blisters, erosions;
- formation of crusts followed by desquamation.
Look at how contact dermatitis in children looks on the photo.
In the chronic course of the process, the skin becomes covered with knotlike elements, scaly and itchy. In advanced cases, there is an increase in the skin pattern. Hypersensitivity to allergens causes the person to comb the skin. After direct contact with the stimulus, a feeling of heat may occur with an increase in local temperature, that is, in the lesion focus.
In the hands of contact dermatitis - a photo of which will be shown below, develops in cashiers in contact with coins. Nickel, which is contained in them, causes allergies on the fingers. In the pharmaceutical industry, the skin of the hands suffers from constant interaction with powders of medicinal products.
The appearance of changes on the skin, provoked by dermatoallergeny, can be presented in stages as follows:
- redness and swelling of tissues in a restricted area;
- pronounced itch of the reddened zone;
- formation of blisters with transparent liquid contents on the tissues;
- self-closing of blisters with the formation of erosive foci;
- Cover the skin with yellow crusts as the process fades.
All possible ways of manifesting contact dermatitis, we collected in the photo database.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by allergy doctors. In the conditions of the clinic, they perform application tests by applying to the patient's skin an alleged irritant and monitoring the body's reactions. Patch-tests facilitate the detection of substances that trigger allergic reactions in a particular person. They look like sticky layers of paper, saturated with various allergens..
All allergens require detection and rapid expulsion from the body. One can not hesitate, because an innocuous at first glance, an allergy is capable of transforming into more dangerous processes - asthma, Quincke's edema or anaphylactic shock..
Video:What is contact dermatitis?
Principles of treatment of dermatoallergy
The fight against external manifestations of dermatitis is based on the proper care of the skin and creating for it special conditions that protect against the negative effects of predisposing factors to allergies. In most cases, their elimination is sufficient to cure the disease, and the use of medications can be avoided.
Dissociation with an allergen is an important point in the therapy of contact dermatitis. If the cause of the disease lies in the diet, adjust the daily diet. Agree that it is not difficult to notice, on what products, cosmetic or chemical preparations the skin responds with itch and redness. Having convinced of the influence of a particular factor, a person must necessarily exclude it from everyday life.
Exacerbation of dermatitis often occurs after hormonal outbursts, expressions of negative emotions or stressful situations at work or at home. Therefore, an important role in the treatment of the disease is assigned to sedative therapy. Patients are shown herbal decoctions of soothing effects, common baths and phyto baths for the limbs.
Herbs useful for dermatitis are:
- St. John's wort;
Dry crushed phyto raw materials are combined in a collection, mixed and taken from it 1 tbsp. l. Then the product is given a glass of boiling water and taken inside or added to the bath..
To avoid drying the skin, trays with turn, arnika or bark of oak should be arranged 1 - 2 p. in Week. Dryness of the skin with dermatitis is not a desirable phenomenon. But chamomile baths remove redness and soothe irritated tissues..
What medications are contact dermatitis treated?
Since the main factor provoking inflammatory changes on the skin is histamine, anti-histamines are prescribed for the treatment of the disease of the doctor. From preparations of new generation Telfast, Zirtek, Erius well behave. They do not give the side effects inherent in the old medicines - Dimedrol, Suprastin, Tavegil.
The form of the release of Erius are tablets weighing 5 mg. Adults and children who reached the age of 12, he is prescribed 1 tablet a day. Zirtek is also produced in tablet form, but 10 mg each. The recommended dose of reception is 1 tablet once a day.
To remove inflammation from the skin covered with bubbles or erosions, doctors are advised to perform local treatment with ointments containing corticosteroids (Elidel, Advantan, Lokoid). Coping with inflammation with dermatoallergii for 3 - 5 days can be done by applying to the skin a thin layer of Advantan. Smearing of the foci is only done once a day without exceeding the indicated duration of treatment.
To get rid of allergic contact dermatitis on the face, experts advise using Advantan in the form of an emulsion.
It is spread over the skin of the face with a thin layer and gently rubbed. The procedure is performed once a day. Regardless of the affected area, treatment of the disease must be carried out under the supervision of an allergist or dermatologist. Self-medication is not allowed.