Who is most at risk of suffering from the development of Rhesus-conflict?
Many people have heard of what a rhesus conflict is. Since nothing changes in everyday life from the existence of Rh factor, and life goes on as usual, few people think about the importance of this indicator. But here the rhesus-conflict during pregnancy acquires special significance both for the well-being of the woman and for the safety of the fetus. Maternity can be threatened.
- general information
- Flow process
- Who is at risk?
- How to determine in advance
- Actions in the puerperal stage
- Features of feeding
- Congenital pathologies of infants
Rhesus-conflict between the mother and her future child is a concept of the reaction of humoral immunity. It is formed in a woman, when her blood does not have this component, on the antigens that are present in the blood of the Rh-positive baby.
Sometimes Rhesus-conflict is able to develop due to blood transfusion performed with an incorrect calculation of the Rh factor. In this case, no help will not give a result, and in most cases death occurs. Blood transfusion always carries danger. Doctors are able to make mistakes in determining the blood type, Rh factor. In addition, no one can give a full guarantee that donor blood does not carry germs of dangerous infections.
The conflict between the mother and the fetus leads to the disintegration of erythrocyte cells in the latter. As a result, babies can be born with severe pathologies, for example, with hemolytic jaundice of newborns. There are cases of stillbirth or fatal outcome for infants.
More information on this subject can be found in the video below:
Rhesus is a special protein that is attached to the molecules of red blood cells. If it is present in a person's blood, the blood is considered Rh positive. When this fragment is absent, the blood is Rh-negative.
If there was a rhesus-conflict during pregnancy, the consequences for the child can be the most unpleasant. To understand why this happens, it is worthwhile to consider in more detail the mechanism of the processes occurring at this moment in the body of the pregnant woman and the fetus, and not just the name itself.
Negative processes are triggered after the red blood cells of the fetus have entered the blood of the Rh-negative woman, in which the Rh is positive. Immunity mothers regard these molecules as a foreign factor, so it produces antibodies to the blood of their own child.
As a result, the embryo increases bilirubin. This is due to the peculiarities of the liver and spleen. Erythrocyte cells are utilized by these organs. However, in the antenatal period, that is, during intrauterine development, these same organs are responsible for the production of new cells.
Because the erythrocyte cells of the fetus are intensively destroyed by the mother's antigens, the processes of enhanced hematopoies are triggered in the child's body..
Attention! An increase in the level of bilirubin is dangerous for an unborn baby. This influence can damage the brain at the stage of development, which makes it impossible to have a full-fledged child..
A sharp decrease in the number of erythrocyte cells in the child's body and increased stimulation of the liver and spleen leads to a marked increase in these organs. Nevertheless, without external assistance, these organs are not capable of stopping Rh-conflict and replenishing the missing volume of red blood cells. This threatens the child in the womb with a severe lack of oxygen. The development of the embryo can stop. If you do not find the problem and do not provide timely qualified help, the fetal death may occur.
Who is at risk?
It is worth noting that not every woman in childbirth is faced with the problem of developing Rh-conflict. What does it depend on, this problem will appear or not? Preventing conflict plays a very important role, because the state is critically dangerous for the baby and the woman.
It is not enough to understand what a rhesus conflict is during a pregnancy. It is necessary to know when the risk of its occurrence is high, what is the dependence of the lifestyle and the probability of complication, and how to react to this phenomenon correctly.
Obstetrics for decades has faced a high risk of lack of compatibility between father and mother. Will the future child appear healthy, depends on the group and type of blood of future parents. The risk is high if:
- a woman has no Rh factor in the blood;
- the future factor of the father is present.
It can not be assumed that different Rh factors in men and women are an occasion to have an abortion, or conception is impossible. In no case! Such a family can have children. The main thing is to correctly plan pregnancy and take the right antiresus drug.
It is noteworthy that even with different rhesus indicators for a woman and a future child, the case of conflict does not always arise. Since the bloodstream of a woman and a child is not directly connected, problems can arise only during childbirth..
Attention! In the initial pregnancy, symptoms of Rh-conflict develop extremely rarely. The blood of a woman is still unknown proteins of positive rhesus. Therefore, the reaction is very slow and almost insensible. Important thoughtful prevention..
Often during childbirth a part of the child's biomaterial gets into the woman's blood. If the rhesus are different, the immune system of the mother "remembers" them, produces antibodies, and in the course of a secondary pregnancy the risk of Rhesus-conflict increases significantly. Symptoms appear very quickly, and a woman needs medical attention.
Conflict in a secondary pregnancy should not mean that a woman is sick and she needs treatment. Planning of children with different rhesus should be in advance. If a woman has decided to become pregnant again, it is worth considering how the primary pregnancy passed, than it ended.
To determine the Rh rhesus with subsequent conception is usually easier, since the woman is already aware of her problem. A second conflict occurs after:
- spontaneous miscarriage in 3-4% of cases;
- the transferred abortion in 5-6%;
- of the generic process - 10-15%.
The percentage ratio may be higher in the case of a complicated previous pregnancy. It can also be affected by caesarean section or placental abruption during a previous pregnancy.
You can not focus only on your own feelings. Perhaps the doctor will recommend hemostas. Sometimes the doctor gives valuable information to the urine. It is important to understand what the norm is for different indicators, and periodically monitor them, including paying attention to hemoglobin.
How to determine in advance
Even before conception, a woman planning a child should know her blood group number and Rh factor. It is impossible to accurately predict whether such a complication as a rhesus conflict during pregnancy will develop. A table describing the risks of this complication gives only approximate data.
To find out if there is a Rhesus-conflict during pregnancy, a table by blood groups will not help. It is required to pass a special analysis and carefully observe the picture of blood and the state of health of a woman.
To avoid the development of Rh-conflict, apply this technique:
- reveal what kind of rhesus the wife has;
- determine the indicator of the future father.
If a woman does not have the Rh-component, and the man has it, a conflict prevention is carried out. For this, during the course of pregnancy it is important to undergo the necessary studies. Each stage of pregnancy should be closely monitored by a doctor. You can not rely only on your own feeling that everything is in order. It is necessary to pass a special test.
How often the in vitro test for the determination of antibodies in the blood is influenced by the gestational age. Most often, surveys are performed on this schedule:
- first and second trimester once a month;
- the third trimester twice a month;
- after the 35th week has expired, the analysis is carried out once a week.
Laboratory tests for antibodies to the bloodstream of a child should be carried out before the development of the birth process. The attending physician can analyze the number of antibodies in the blood and draw certain conclusions.
Actions in the puerperal stage
If during pregnancy had to deal with signs of Rh-conflict, the newborn is taken a test for the exact determination of Rh rhesus. If suspicions are confirmed, the mother is given a special serum.
The introduction of immunoglobulins is performed only by a woman. If the blood contained a titer of antibodies during pregnancy, the mind will tell what to do such an injection is contraindicated. Vaccination is carried out only in the doctor's office by a specialist..
Attention! Anti-serous serum should be administered no later than 72 hours after birth..
To cases when such therapy should be carried out, the following concern:
- tubal pregnancy;
- medical or surgical abortion;
- blood transfusion;
- exfoliation of the placenta;
- biopsy of the chorion.
If there are prerequisites for the onset of rhesus-conflict, treatment at home is contraindicated. This leads to fetal death and severe consequences for the woman herself. It does not matter if pregnancy has occurred for the first or fourth time, the risk is always preserved, and you need to be sensitive and careful to your health and understand that you are responsible not only for yourself, but also for the future child.
The level of antibodies during pregnancy can both go down and rise. Do not believe in the essay that if the data returned to normal, no more blood donation and monitor indicators are not necessary. The attending physician can give the right advice regarding the treatment and the necessary tests.
Features of feeding
There is an opinion that it is contraindicated to breast-feed a child with Rhesus-conflict. That the kid could grow the high-grade person, from the first days of a life he should receive all necessary nutrients. What is recommended by Dr. Komarovsky E. ABOUT.? Is it possible to give a baby a breast, is lactation permissible?
If this situation occurs, it is important to consider several aspects. Contraindication to breastfeeding appears only with hemolytic disease of the fetus. The season does not affect whether breastfeeding is acceptable.
At high antibody titers it is recommended to temporarily, for a few days, refrain from breastfeeding, but maintain lactation by expressing milk. The first few weeks require the supervision of a doctor in the hospital for the condition of the child.
What is this pathology - hemolytic disease? What is the survival rate among children with this disease? More details about the course of the disease and the peculiarities of its development are written below.
Congenital pathologies of infants
Regardless of whether multiple pregnancies or singleton pregnancies, incompatibility is the same. If a yellow child was born, doctors say that the fetus is hemolytic icteric. Where does the pathology come from?
In the bloodstream of the future mother, in which there is no rhesus component, the synthesis of antibodies against fetal blood begins in which this element is present. When these bodies enter the bloodstream of the embryo, negative destructive processes start in the body.
Antibodies of the pregnant woman come into contact with antigens of the fetus's blood. As a result, the erythrocyte cells of the child - hemolysis - are destroyed. This process and the consequences to which it leads, is called hemolytic disease.
The baby's body begins to feel an acute anemia, related to a shortage of red blood cells in the bloodstream. The condition leads to damage to the brain and kidneys. The process of destruction of erythrocytes does not cease on its own, it is continuous.
In response to these processes, the crumbs organism increases the production of erythrocytes. As a result, the bodies responsible for the production of new blood cells are working at the limit. They increase in size.
Before birth, doctors can detect thickening of the placenta and increase the volume of amniotic fluid. These symptoms are clearly visible in the picture of a woman's ultrasound.
In particularly complex pictures of hemolytic disease, the death of the embryo occurs. This is due to acute oxygen starvation. In this case, the month of pregnancy is almost always irrelevant. This complication can occur at any time.
Details on how to take a healthy child to a woman look at the video:.. .