How does HPV type 31 disease appear in men?
Table of contents
- Methods of penetration of papillomavirus into the body
- Methods of diagnosis and treatment
Papillomaviruses, which are the cause of the appearance of papillomas and warts, are divided according to the probability of occurrence of oncological diseases in several types - safe, low risk and high risk. Low oncogeneity means that the mutation of cells is provoked rarely.HPV type 31 has a high degree of danger, under its influence can develop malignant neoplasms.This virus is able to cause men to develop papillomas on the genitals.
Methods of penetration of papillomavirus into the body
All types of HPV have tissue specificity, affecting only a certain type of tissue. The introduction of type 31 papillomavirus occurs in the cells of the mucosa and skin epidermis. It accumulates in the basal cells, there is a process of its replication (self-reproduction). Further, the papillomavirus penetrates into all layers of the epithelium, preserving the active state for a long time. With the inclusion of the process of carcinogenesis, the epithelial layers can be transformed into oncogenes.
To papillomavirus penetrated the tissue of the epithelium, it is necessary to have direct contact with the mucosa or epidermis. The most common infection occurs through microtraumas that occur during sexual contact. You can get infected with papillomavirus not only from a person who has visible manifestations of HPV infection, but also from a virus carrier. Infection during medical examinations is possible only if non-disposable instruments or gloves are used.
In men, the origin of the papillomas is more often the coronary fissure of the penis and its bridle. Significantly less often, formations appear on the body and head of the genital organ or outside the urethral opening. Sometimes men have a lesion of the mucous membrane of the urethra, which seriously hampers the process of urination. Then, the formations, reaching a medium or large size, are easily probed in the urethra.
Methods of diagnosis and treatment
In a significant part of men, papillomaviruses are present in the body in an inactive form, since activity is suppressed by immunity. In such cases, clinical manifestations of the disease are not observed. Activated papillomaviruses, gathering in one place, violate the division of cells. The process of reproduction of cells is accelerated, papillomas arise which can grow rapidly, forming clusters. After getting rid of papillomas, HPV can remain in the body and reappear. Prevention of relapse is the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a high status of immunity.
There are several diagnostic methods that allow to identify types of papillomaviruses and the nature of tissue pathology:
- The method of polymer chain reaction (PCR), being a high-precision method, helps to identify pathogens even in the latent flow of the process.
- With the appearance of growths, a cytological examination is performed to evaluate the shape and condition of the tissue cells.
- Histological studies are performed on pieces of tissue obtained by biopsy.
Studies allow to identify such stages of the development of the disease as latent, stage of dysplasia (HPV DNA integrates with the DNA of cells), malignant stage (the presence of mutations in cells).
Treatment of viral infection of type 31, which causes the formation of papillomas, is performed only by a doctor and includes immunomodulatory and antiviral therapy.
If the papillomas are benign, then a destructive intervention that destroys the neoplasm and the altered epithelial layer is possible. The following destruction methods are applied, providing an aesthetic result:
- Cryodestruction can remove neoplasms by cauterization using liquid nitrogen.
- With the radio wave method, the treatment is carried out with a laser beam, which does not leave scar tissue removed, disinfects the wound and accelerates their healing.
After destruction, immunomodulatory therapy is performed, repeatedly reducing the activity of the virus.
Papillomaviruses, resulting in the appearance of papillomas, genital warts and warts, affect a significant proportion of people. The disease often occurs asymptomatically, intensifying with a decrease in the immune status. Carrying in women and men leads to transmission of infection during sexual intercourse. When neoplasms appear, you should immediately consult a urologist or a venereologist to find out the type of HPV. Early diagnosis will allow for successful treatment at a benign stage of the disease.