The causes of elevated leukocytes and ESR in the blood in a child, diagnosis and treatment

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2017.08.22
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Blood test

One of the important studies conducted at the clinic and diagnosis of diseases, is a general blood test. It is often handed over to both children and adults. During the analysis of the analysis, it can be revealed that the child has increased ESR and leukocyte counts in the blood. What does this indicate, and what are the causes?

Content

  • What is the leukocytes
  • Why is the level of white blood cells in a child increased?
  • What is ESR
  • Why is the child's ESR increased?
  • Methods for carrying out the analysis of the level of ESR
  • Syndrome of high ESR
  • What is indicated by the low level of ESR
  • Why are leukocytes and ESR in the blood at the same time increased in children
  • How correctly to hand over the general analysis of a blood

What is the leukocytes

Leukocytes are called white blood cells. They help the human body to fight the pathogens. The level of leukocytes varies throughout the day, both in the large and in the lower side. Minor changes are usually associated with natural physiological processes and do not signal a disease. For example: small children have a slight increase in white blood cells as a reaction to new food or strong crying. The level of leukocytes is affected by stress, weather conditions, overheating, physical activity.

A strong deviation from the norm in greater or less is caused by diseases or disorders. Norms of leukocytes change with the growth of the child.
Leukocyte cell

If in children up to a year the norm is from, to 1, * 109 / l, then from year to three already from 6 to 17 109 * / l. At the age of up to 10 years, the normal value is from -1 to 109 / l. From 10 years and older, leukocytes are normal with the values ​​of 4, * 109 / L.

Why is the level of white blood cells in a child increased?

High values ​​of leukocytes in the analysis of blood are called leukocytosis. It is caused by a mass of various causes. One of the most common - infectious diseases. Leukocytes will be increased with bronchitis, otitis media, meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis. cholecystitis, inflammatory processes in the intestine. In addition, leukocytosis develops as a result of trauma, burns, blood transfusions, large blood loss, mononucleosis and other diseases.

When revealing the causes of leukocytosis, it should be remembered that the leukocytes are divided into five types of blood cells: neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes. Each of the groups performs its unique functions. Neutrophils fight bacterial infections, basophils "recognize" the enemy and direct other cells to fight it, eosinophils are activated in case of an allergic reaction, monocytes kill foreign cells, and lymphocytes search for a method defeat the disease. Deviations in the parameters can say a lot about the cause of the disease. To find out the cause of the increase in leukocytes, you need to take into account the overall dynamics of changes in blood indicators.

What is ESR

One of the most important parameters of the clinical study is ESR (or ROE).

The abbreviation of ESR is deciphered as the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation. This parameter was named due to the method of research: the blood is mixed with sodium citrate, after which the erythrocytes settle on the bottom of a special dish.

The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation varies depending on the age of the child.

Age Norms of ESR, mm / h:

  • up to 1 month - from 2 to,
  • from 1 month to 1 year - from 4 to 7
  • 1 year - 8 years - from 4 to 8
  • from 8 to 12 years - from 4 to 12
  • over 12 years - from 3 to 15

If the ESR in a child is within the norm or slightly exceeds the boundaries, then it is not necessary to worry - most likely the child is OK. At an ESR level of 20-25 mm / h, an inflammatory process is suspected, and one should not postpone the trip to the doctor. If the ESR is 30 mm / h or more, it indicates a chronic inflammatory process or other serious problems in the body.

Why is the child's ESR increased?

The causes of deviation from reference values ​​are also purely physiological. For example: ESR in girls is higher than in boys. At the age of one month and two years, the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation temporarily rises to 17 millimeters per hour.

The lack of vitamins, non-observance of the diet by the nursing mother, teething, taking medication - factors that increase ESR in infants.

It is interesting. The index of ESR increases in the afternoon: from 13 to 18 hours.

If ESR is increased, this indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the body. In children with inflammatory process, which is accompanied by temperature, the index rises on the second day of the disease. The high rate of erythrocyte sedimentation in a child indicates that there are hidden foci of infection in the body.

Table of ESR norms in the child

There are cases when normal leukocytes show a high ESR. Such analyzes are characteristic for various diseases:

  • infection is a common cause of high ESR;
  • diseases of the upper respiratory tract, tonsillitis, influenza;
  • poisoning;
  • purulent processes;
  • tuberculosis;
  • autoimmune disorders;
  • diseases of the thyroid gland and metabolic disorders;
  • kidney disease;
  • increased viscosity and density of blood;
  • sometimes a tumor.

Allergies, injuries, the presence of helminths in children provoke an increase in ESR.

Parents should pay attention to the behavior and complaints of the child, in time to notice the onset of the disease.

Methods for carrying out the analysis of the level of ESR

There are two ways to conduct research: the Panchenkov method and the Westergren method.

For the Panchenkov method, several ml of blood is needed, which is taken from an anonymous finger. The taken material is mixed with sodium citrate and after one hour the result is compared with the reference scale.

When Westergren's method is used, blood for analysis is taken from the vein. Blood is mixed in a special vessel with reagents, and the resulting mixture is poured into a special tube. On a test tube, a scale is made, which allows one to determine the rate at which the erythrocytes settle. This method is considered modern and reliable.

Syndrome of high ESR

Sometimes it happens that the indicators of the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation are at a high level for a long time. There are no other symptoms and complaints, and the person feels well. In this case, carry out comprehensive surveys to find the cause of the condition. If pathologies are not revealed, sometimes they speak of "an increased ESR syndrome". Indicators can sometimes reach 50-60 mm / h. This condition can not be called a disease. Rather, it is an individual characteristic of the child's body.

What is indicated by the low level of ESR

Low rates do not indicate serious deviations and diseases. But if the indicator in the analysis of the baby is greatly understated, pay attention to the child's well-being. Perhaps, he does not have enough nutrients in the diet or his nutrition is not balanced enough. Such indicators are after food poisoning, when due to diarrhea and vomiting the body loses a lot of fluid. Sometimes, low ESR is manifested in diseases of the blood and circulatory system. In this case, all the blood test parameters of the child are changed.

Why are leukocytes and ESR in the blood at the same time increased in children

To understand why the rate of precipitation of erythrocytes is higher than normal, you need to pay attention to other indicators in the analysis.

An increase in the number of leukocytes with high ESR indicates an inflammatory process.

If the ESR is high, and the white blood cells are normal, then the organism is attacked by the virus. This interpretation of the analysis indicates an improvement in the condition and a speedy recovery, because the leukocytes return to normal values ​​rather quickly.

One indicator of ESR can not be correctly diagnosed. It is not superfluous to re-pass the analysis to exclude erroneous results.

If the clinical study confirms deviations from the norm, you should definitely consult a doctor. The specialist will examine the patient, will appoint additional methods of diagnosis. Often during the illness it is recommended to do a general blood test several times. Thus, the doctor will assess the dynamics of the changes in the indicators and determine whether the prescribed treatment is effective.

How correctly to hand over the general analysis of a blood

To avoid erroneous and inaccurate results, you need to prepare for the analysis. Blood for any studies to give on an empty stomach. Before a general blood test, do not eat for 8-9 hours. All day long it is not recommended to eat fatty or overcooked food. An hour before giving blood to refrain from emotional stress. For 15 minutes before entering the treatment room, sit still and rest. It is better to refrain from taking the test immediately after physiotherapy and x-rays.

If the child takes medication at the time of donating blood, tell the doctor about it. Some medicines can influence the composition of the blood. Blood to determine the level of ESR and leukocytes is taken from the ring finger or from the vein, depending on the method of investigation.

The indicators of the level of leukocytes and ESR are one of the most important parameters that allow to assess the state of the child's health. We must not forget that on the basis of only a general blood test, no expert makes a diagnosis. Internal consultation, examination and appointment of additional studies are always necessary. We should not forget about possible mistakes in the analysis. In any case, in any suspicion, it is better for parents to seek advice from a pediatrician.

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