Why do papillomas appear on the mucous throat? Treatment
The formation of papilloma in the throat is due to the active activity of the papilloma virus in the human body. The pathological focus looks like a warty-like outgrowth and is located on the tonsils and their arches, on the soft palate. On the tongue of the papilloma rarely jump. The localization of outgrowths in these places is less dangerous than in the larynx and trachea - here they create obstacles to normal breathing.
Benign neoplasm is attached to the mucous thin or broad pedicel. His body is covered with an epithelium, under which the submucosa is located. Why develop papillomatosis of the throat?
Causes of papillomatosis in the throat
In children, infection occurs perinatally, that is, at birth by the mother - a carrier of papillomavirus. In this case, the disease becomes respiratory. In adults, the main pathway for the transmission of the HPV strain is the sexual way.
The risk group includes 2 categories of persons:
- children under 5 years of age;
- Men and women, whose age falls within the framework of 20 - 40 years.
Factors that provoke a sudden appearance of papillomas may be:
- depression of the immune system;
- infectious diseases characteristic of childhood (measles and scarlet fever);
- diseases of sensory organs with chronic course (chain "ear - throat - nose");
- promiscuous sexual intercourse;
- non-observance of rules of personal hygiene, including. and in public places.
Papillomatosis of the larynx in adults is able to degenerate into cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to approach his treatment responsibly. If the doctor offers a histological examination of the neoplasm, you should not abandon the procedure..
Clinical picture, characteristic of the disease
If there is a small papilloma in the throat - symptoms may not be observed. But if a person opens his mouth and looks in the mirror, he will notice education. As it grows, the following changes occur:
- the feeling of a foreign body in the throat;
- difficulty breathing;
- speech impairment;
- difficulty with swallowing food;
- sensation, as if choked with food.
Also a person should be alerted to the frequent incidence of sore throat, because papillomas on tonsils often develop due to chronic tonsillitis. On examination, the doctor observes the swelling of the tonsils or the fusion of the arches with the tonsils.
In the photo, the papilloma in the larynx looks like this:
In children, the clinical picture of papillomatosis can be expressed through signs of dystrophic organ changes if the kid suffers from renal or hepatic insufficiency and other similar ailments. Also parents should pay attention to frequent causeless coughing of the child, hoarseness of the voice and its loss, violation of the baby's breathing, similar to suffocation.
An alarming symptom of the papilloma of the larynx in childhood is a backlog in development - both mental and physical. This is due to oxygen starvation, which developed against the background of disturbed breathing. Very often papillomatosis appears because of the propensity to respiratory system diseases (SARS, pneumonia, bronchitis).
The photo (above) shows the papillomas in the throat. Massive accumulation of neoplasms is characteristic of childhood. Single cells are inherent in adult patients..
Sprouting papillomas are similar to cauliflower. They are seen in the vestibular part of the larynx, trachea and fusiform space. In childhood, they are dangerous dystrophy of the myocardium and inhibition of the endocrine and nervous systems..
Methods for treating papillomas that form in the throat
Drug therapy of papillomatosis is based on the appointment of antiviral drugs and drugs with immunostimulating effect. The first group of drugs is taken for prophylaxis in order to avoid further proliferation of growths and with the aim of suppressing the activity of HPV.
Conservative treatment of papillomas is carried out using the following means:
- trichloroacetic acid;
- potassium iodide;
- podophyllin in the form of a 10% solution;
- a complex of inosine and dimethylamino-2-propanol of p-acetamide-benzoate from TEVA corporation.
Realizing the risk of developing multiple papillomatosis, doctors insist on removing the papilloma in the throat, since even one element can become a source of infection.
Surgical intervention is divided into two types - intra-oral and extra -ortic.
In the first case,neoplasms are removed by special instruments with control of the laryngeal mirror.
The technique is good for treating children who have reached the age of 8 - at an earlier age it is difficult because of their restlessness. Also, intra-irtane removal is performed using the Zymont orthoscope followed by fluoroscopy.
To out-of-gallate treatment of papillomasin the throat resorted with difficulty breathing patient. He is tracheotomy or laringofissura. Thanks to the first variant of the intervention, it is possible to stop the stenosis of the organ and give him rest. During the laryngophyssura, specialists disclose the patient's larynx and remove the pathological element.
Work on the affected voice ligament is completed by a transplantation of the epidermis. In some cases, after such intervention, patients undergo X-ray or electrocoagulation..
Diagnosis of papillomatosis is carried out through laryngotracheal and histological / molecular biopsy studies. To clarify the boundaries of the built-up edge and reveal hidden elements, photodynamic and autofluorescent endoscopy or computed tomography are used..
The modern endolaryngeal methods of excretion of papillomas include:
- ultrasonic disintegration;
- laser and argon-plasma coagulation.
Video:removal of papillomatosis of the larynx with a severe form in a man.
Despite the effectiveness of these methods, none of them guarantees complete cure of the disease. Throat papillomatosis is characterized by a high relapse rate, so some people have to perform several operations during their life.