Epidermophytia of foot
Epidermophytosis - the defeat of the upper layers of the skin and nail plates by the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes, but often the symptoms of the disease are caused by completely different pathologies.
To a greater extent, the ailment affects the adult population of the planet, and among rural residents it manifests less often than among the townspeople.
- Types and signs
- Diagnosis of pathology
- Home remedies
- Precautionary measures
The epidermophytosis of the foot and hand is easily transferred from one person to another. The disease spreads in public places, such as saunas, swimming pools, baths and gyms.
The main methods of transfer are:
- contact barefoot feet with infected surface;
- close contact with affected areas;
- fitting and wearing someone else's shoes, socks, stockings;
- Sanitary and hygienic accessories - soap, clippers, nippers, sponges, sponges, towels.
Specific fungus is not always the main pathogen. Lower limbs are affected in chronic arterial disease, venous insufficiency, deep vessel thrombosis.
And also for violations of the assimilation of glucose, multiple damage to peripheral nerves, disruption of the autonomic nervous system and weak immunity. Important reasons for the manifestation of the disease are: increased sweating of the feet, narrowinterdigital spaces, the presence of a flat foot, an alkaline reaction of sweat.
Types and signs
To find out what this disease is, it is worthwhile to disassemble in detail its types and to reveal the symptoms inherent in the epidermophytosis.
Dermatologists distinguish four main forms that affect the feet:
- Intertriginoznaya - this type affects the intervals of little fingers, ring and middle fingers, as well as their folds. Puffiness, erosion, cracks, wet wounds are formed. Strong burning and flaking of the white crusts of the skin was noticed.
- Squamous - is considered a dangerous form of mycosis. As shown in the photo vishe, it is characterized by the formation of a flatRashes of red color with dry exfoliating skinthe arches of the feet and the lateral surfaces. Papules have clear outlines and at times are similar plaques, typical for psoriasis. Often, lesions appearyellowish callosities with cracks. For this type is characterized by a fickle itch.
- Dysgidrotic- is formed on the soles, arches of the feet, fingers and their folds. On the epidermis appearsmall vesicles, subsequently merging and acquiring a multi-chamber structure. The affected areas itch and hurt. After opening, the skin becomes red and pink.
- Epidermophytic nails - a kind of complication that develops as a result of the first three forms.Horny plates turn yellow, exfoliate, thicken,break and crumble. Often there is a complete or partial rejection of the nails. Primarily, the thumbs and little fingers suffer.
A separate species is staped epidermophytia. This is an easy form of the disease, which manifests itself in the initial stages. There are minor skin flakes and rare cracks between the fingers.
Epidermophytia of the feet in children develops for the same reasons as in adults. Basically, it is active in spring and summer, and in the winter it is possible to calm down.
Diagnosis of pathology
The procedure is performed by a dermatologist or mycologist. To find out what kind of pathogen, from a sick nail and skin, particles are scraped off. Next, the selected material is soaked in alkali and examined under a microscope.
If it detects mushroom threads, then a positive diagnosis is made. The result will not be correct if the detachments were taken from a wet plot.
After the diagnosis, the question: "how to treat epidermophyte, so that it passed in a short time and there was no relapse?" Becomes relevant. Doctors say that "pathology does not require hospitalization, therapy is carried out at home."
- With squamous form from the affected areas, scales and hardened layers are first removed to release skin from dead tissue. To do this, prepare a special consistency that includes: salicylic and lactic acid, as well as white petrolatum. The resulting ointment is applied to the areas of inflammation, wrapped with a compress and held for 48 hours. Then remove the exfoliated epidermis. The next stage consists in the local use of antimycotic creams, ointments and sprays, among which: "Ketoconazole "Naphthyfin "Terbinafine". Preparations should be used until the signs of the disease disappear.
- The first step in the treatment of the dyshidrotic and intertriginous leg form is the removal of inflammatory processes, swelling and elimination of wetness. First, a sterile needle is pierced by bubbles, if they are formed. After that, the affected areas of the epidermis are applied twice a day with lotions containing solutions: resorcinol, chlorhexidine, ethacridine lactate. If the inflammation is pronounced, then it is recommended to additionally use a hormonal ointment for a short time, for example, "Hydrocortisone". The next step will be the local use of antifungal agents, the most common of which are: Exoderyl, Ketoconazole, Bethonazole.
- For erased it is enough to use anti-mycotic drugs, until complete recovery.
- With nail epidermophytia, antifungal agents are applied externally and inward, since this is a more severe degree of the disease. Among them: "Irunin "Orungal "Flukonazol "Terbinoks". The duration of treatment depends on the location of the affected areas. If the nails on the hands are touched, the course of therapy will be six to twelve weeks. And if on legs or foots - reception of medicines will be stretched for half a year. Before the treatment, it is recommended to remove the sick nails or at least daily cut the damaged layer and treat it with iodine, salicylic acid, antifungal varnishes.
In addition to medicinal preparations, it is possible to add treatment with folk remedies. Calming and antifungal action is possessed by compresses and baths from the decoction of the flowers of celandine, chamomile, St. John's wort, eucalyptus leaves.
Disinfect the affected area of apple cider vinegar or tincture of calendula. Effective will be oiling sea buckthorn or tea tree, which eliminate inflammation and are antiseptic.
To avoid the occurrence of pathology, it is recommended that you follow certain rules.
Prevention of the disease is as follows:
- wash thoroughly after washing;
- Do not use other people's hygiene items (loofah, pumice, scissors, towel, nail file);
- keep the shoes dry inside;
- wear socks only from natural fabrics - cotton, linen and change them every day;
- Do not allow diaper rash and sweating;
- When visiting public places (shower, pool, bath), wear only your rubber shoes.
Treatment of epidermophytosis is a long process, therefore, in order to avoid relapse, it is recommended to be patient and complete the course of therapy.
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But even when the disease receded, it is advisable for three weeks to lubricate the former places of iodine damage for prevention. After all, if the fungus returns, other people may suffer along with the affected person.