How in the laboratory is syphilis diagnosed by the RMP blood test?

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2017.10.07
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Blood test

There are a number of diseases that, in addition to discomfort, can bring unpleasant sensations on an emotional level. These include venereal diseases. An infected person does not always seek to see a doctor and undergo treatment. Most people come to the reception with complications. One of the most common venereal diseases is syphilis. The disease in the initial stage does not have unique signs, and therefore for the diagnosis doctors give patients the direction for a lot of studies, and RLP analysis is one of them.

Content

  • Transmission paths
  • Types and symptoms of syphilis
  • When is the analysis scheduled?
  • Interpretation and interpretation of analysis responses
  • How to prepare for the analysis?
  • Additional diagnostics
  • Therapy

Transmission paths

Like any venereal disease, syphilis is poorly treatable and, in neglected form, causes irreparable harm to the human body. The disease was described a few centuries ago. People of even high rank are not insured from it. Up to a certain point, syphilis was put in danger on the same line as the plague.

The causative agent is pale treponema - a bacterium belonging to the family of gram-negative spirochetes. Among venereal diseases spread among people, syphilis is on the third place. The disease is transmitted in various ways:

  • sexual intercourse;
  • in the doctor's office, manicure salon and so on;
  • household way by using personal hygiene items like razors;
  • Newborn children, having received an infection from the mother during passage through the birth canal.

Once in the blood, the pathogen spreads to all organs.

Only the correct diagnosis with treatment can quickly and effectively stop the disease, completely destroying the bacteria.

Stages of syphilis

Types and symptoms of syphilis

Medicine distinguishes several types of syphilis. The disease is primary, secondary and tertiary. The incubation period is 3 weeks, but depending on the immune system of the infected person varies within 10-90 days.

In the initial stage, a hard chancre appears on the site of the infection, similar to a sore with a pronounced red glossy surface. After 7-10 days after the first manifestation, lymph nodes that are at a close distance from the sore are enlarged. Shankr is kept on the surface of the body, a month and disappears, then the presence of the disease can be determined only by making a blood test of the MCI.

Blood sampling for analysis

When is the analysis scheduled?

The study relates to the second type of assays, and with its help, microprecipitation is studied, antibodies sensitive to cardiolipin found in bacterial membranes are determined. The direction for the analysis of the MCI is given by:

  • if a characteristic rash appeared on the body of the patient and his genitals, typical sores appeared and lymph nodes increased;
  • a month old child, if the mother of the newborn is sick with syphilis;
  • if a person is going to donate blood;
  • when a woman becomes registered for pregnancy or an adult passes a physical examination;
  • if preoperative preparation is performed;
  • after passing the course of treatment for syphilis to evaluate the effectiveness.

Additional studies are required to check for other diseases, delivery of urine and blood to RPGs, diagnosis of Helicobacter bacteria in the body.

Examination of biomaterial samples

Interpretation and interpretation of analysis responses

To decipher the blood test at the RMP can be as positive, negative and in some cases a false positive result is possible.

If the study confirms the presence of pale treponema in the material submitted for the study, then the person is the carrier of the disease. A false positive is the result, when the antibodies in the test material are higher than normal, but less than the minimum volume for syphilis. This situation occurs when:

  • autoimmune and rheumatic pathologies;
  • diabetes mellitus, infectious mononucleosis, gout;
  • reactions to the allergen;
  • viral hepatitis, HIV infection, chlamydosis, infection with worms, lamblia causes such symptoms;
  • scarlet fever, atypical pneumonia, chicken pox, measles;
  • progressing tuberculosis.

Rarely, but a similar result can be found in elderly people over 70 and in women during pregnancy.

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It is necessary to take into account, passing the analysis of the RMB, the decoding can be negative not only in the absence syphilis, but also in the initial stage of development, research is negative when the disease has a neglected late shape.

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The blood test, delivered to the RMP, is taken from a vein located on the elbow. After the passage, you may need to additionally scrape with a sore, spinal fluid or lymph. The shelf life of the answers is six months.

Pathogenic elements in the blood with syphilis

How to prepare for the analysis?

Preparation for delivery of material for the study includes:

  • food intake at least 24 hours, fence occurs on an empty stomach;
  • refusal of drinks, except still water, for 3-4 hours;
  • fat, salted, roasted and spicy for 2 days;
  • termination of physical activity and avoidance of stressful situations.

In the case of viral diseases or when taking medication, tell the lab technician at the time of the analysis.

Additional diagnostics

When a blood test submitted for microretection gave a positive response, additional tests for confirmation are given. Diagnosis of the disease is done in 2 ways: with treponemal or with cardiolipin antigen.

Treponemal tests in a person who has had the disease before, always positive. Non-treponemal tests give a high degree of accuracy at all stages of development, which allows them to be used for mass examinations.

What is RMP, revealed in the analysis of blood, and what is the principle of reaction, can be explained as follows:

  • cardiolipin-lecithin-cholesterol antigen, which is an alcoholic cholesterolized extract, is taken from the muscle tissue of a bovine heart;
  • antigen is similar to the bacterium-causative agent of syphilis, because of what antibodies react to it;
  • antibodies appear in the body at the end of the incubation period of the pale spirochaete.

RLP blood analysis, decoding and setting a preliminary diagnosis takes from "Invitro" or "UMCS" doctors from 2 to 10 days, depending on the workload of the laboratories. Answers are valid for up to 6 months.

Reaction

Therapy

Modern methods of treatment and diagnosis can guarantee complete recovery if the disease is detected in a timely manner.

  1. Therapeutic actions necessarily require antibacterial drugs. The estimated period of the course of therapy is 2-3 weeks.
  2. At the time of treatment, follow the doctor's instructions.
  3. Women with a weakly positive MRP, if a short period of pregnancy is likely, you need to take an HCG test.
  4. If the patient has a negative MCI, and the ELISA (enzyme immunoassay) gave a positive result, then the patient should be checked for hepatitis.

Do not be afraid to donate blood to the RMP study, as this is the best way to diagnose the disease and begin fighting it in the early stages. Having received the form with the result of the analysis, you do not need to try to decipher the indicators yourself, even using a table, this should be handled by a doctor who owns all the necessary information.

The RMP study is an important analysis to determine the onset of the disease, but additional tests are needed to clarify the diagnosis.

More information about the ongoing blood test for syphilis can be found in the video:

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