Methods of emergency contraception
Emergency contraception is considered the only way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. There are several of its types, and each has its own positive and negative sides.
When can emergency contraception be used?
Emergency contraception is used in one case - after an unprotected act to prevent the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. It can be pills and other means.
The main condition for their use is a rigid time frame - no later than 3 days after unprotected sex.
Obligatory action should be passing the pregnancy test. In case of a positive result, doctors are urged to refuse to take emergency contraceptives. They can provoke the development of pathologies of the reproductive system.
Types of emergency contraception
Emergency methods of contraception are divided into several types depending on how they affect the body.
Intrauterine devices include the installation of a spiral. It can be regarded as a late contraception. Since the spiral is allowed to set within 5 days after sexual contact.
The method is not suitable for all women. In the presence of inflammatory processes of the reproductive system, the likelihood of an already existing pregnancy and STIs, intrauterine urgently contraception is contraindicated. It is undesirable to use a spiral for young girls who did not give birth.
The main advantage of the method is that the hormonal background remains normal. It is ideal for young mothers as an emergency or long-term contraception for breastfeeding.
The minuses of the intrauterine device are:
- High risk of ectopic pregnancy.
- Painful and prolonged adaptation of the uterus after the introduction of the spiral.
- The risk of developing endometritis, because the cervix remains in the slightly open state.
- Increase the duration and abundance of menstruation with the introduction of nonhormonal spirals. After the installation of the Mirena, the monthly ones become scarce or completely cease.
Medication contraception is the most common. There are many names of tablets from unwanted pregnancy, which are taken after sexual intercourse. They all share one thing - they contain large doses of synthetic analogues of gestagens or prostaglandins, which are able to influence ovulation and prevent embryo implantation.
Effective contraception for women after sex are such drugs: Postinor, Genale, Escapel, Ginepriston and others.
Funds on a hormonal basis can disrupt the integrity of the work of the whole organism. Possible malfunctions of the menstrual cycle, individual allergic reactions, exacerbations of existing chronic diseases of the reproductive system, changes in the psychological state.
Emergency contraception by folk remedies is ineffective and has its own characteristics. At home, it is possible to use various infusions of herbs, a double dose of vitamin C, a hot bath, various douching.
Infusions recommend a variety of, for example, the root of ginger or marjoram.
Douching with acid solutions immediately after sex kills spermatozoa. A spoonful of lemon juice is usually added to a glass of water. However, such a solution may disrupt the vaginal microflora, introducing additional inconveniences.
There is no research proving the effectiveness of these manipulations as a means of fire contraception. That is why doctors associate not the onset of pregnancy in such cases with a certain phase of the cycle, in which it is problematic to become pregnant.
To decide which post-coital agent is best used, you need to check out a few common emergency contraceptive preparations.
|Name (manufacturer)||Active substance (dosage)||Manufacturer's declared efficiency||Application features||Overdose||Retail Value|
|Postinor (Hungary)||Levonorgoestrelum (750 μg)||1 day - 95%
2 days - 85%
3 days - 58%
|Take 2 tablets. The second is strictly after 12-14 hours after the first||Exacerbation of the severity of side effects.||350 rubles.|
|Escapel (Hungary)||Levonorgoestrelum (mg)||1 day - 95%
2 days - 85%
3 days - 58%
|Take only one tablet||The severity of side effects increases||230 rubles.|
|9, %||It is forbidden to eat 2 hours before and 2 hours after taking the pill||Dose up to 2 g does not cause an overdose||440 rubles.|
One of the first means of emergency contraception with high efficiency are postinor tablets. To achieve the result, the medicine must be taken within 24 hours after unprotected coitus.
The composition contains levonorgestrel and excipients. The drug has an impressive list of side effects and contraindications. Therefore, you should carefully study the annotation before use.
Medicinal remedy Escapel - emergency contraceptive in 1 tablet. It is an analogue of Postinor, is positioned as a more advanced drug. Contains an identical amount of levonorgestrel, but only in one tablet.
The claimed effectiveness of the drug is high, but if the woman has already had an implantation, then there will be no result.
Tablet Ginepristona - an excellent remedy for unwanted pregnancy. The active substance - mifepristone, taken no later than 72 hours after sex, blocks progesterone. Thus, the drug is able to slow down ovulation or change the structure of the endometrium, causing monthly.
Mifepristone, in contrast to gestagens, has the possibility of an emergency termination of pregnancy. Its effectiveness does not depend on the phase of the cycle.
Like any serious medicine, it has its own contraindications and side effects.
Effectiveness of methods
In order to determine which of the methods of emergency postcoital contraception is more effective, it is necessary to compare them.
|Method of rapid contraception||The act to be performed||Effectiveness of the method|
|Folk method of douching||Creation of an unviable environment for spermatozoa (acidic)||Unproven.
|The folk method of using herbal infusions||Egg body rejection||Unproven.
|Method of establishing an intrauterine device||Irritation of the endometrium, an obstacle to the implantation of a fertilized egg.
|Proven effectiveness in 96% of cases.|
|The drug method (taking hormonal drugs)||Deceleration of ovulation, an obstacle to implantation||Proven effectiveness:
For 1 day - 98-99%
On the 2nd day - 85%
On the third day - up to 65%
Side effects and contraindications
Emergency contraceptives because of sufficiently serious active ingredients can cause such side effects:
- nausea, vomiting;
- fatigue, a feeling of apathy;
- pain and cramping in the abdomen;
- dizziness, frequent mood changes.
- hyperemia of the skin.
Unwanted consequences of emergency contraception may also arise after the application of folk methods. It can be:
- Temporary stop of the ovaries.
- Dryness of the walls of the vagina.
- Vaginitis due to improper syringing.
All emergency contraceptives for women have their own list of contraindications. They differ for different methods.
|Folk remedies||Pathology of ovarian function;
Individual intolerance to herbs used;
Unstable functioning of the digestive tract;
|Intrauterine devices||Infectious diseases of the reproductive system;
Absence in the past of pregnancy;
Inflammatory processes in the vagina;
Postponed ectopic pregnancy;
Violations of hematopoiesis;
|Hormonal preparations||Diseases of the liver or kidney;
High sensitivity of the organism to the components of the drug;
Pathologies of blood clotting;
Preservation of pregnancy after use of emergency contraception
Preservation of pregnancy after the application of emergency contraception is possible in several cases.
- If the spiral is incorrectly installed. At best - pregnancy will proceed normally, you only need to remove the spiral. At worst, the egg is implanted in one of the fallopian tubes, and surgery will be necessary.
- Contraception was used after a lapse of 3 days after sexual contact or close in time to the phase of ovulation. In this case, fertilization occurs without any pathologies, the fetus does not threaten anything.
The means of urgent hormonal contraception is not recommended to be used more often than 1 time in 3-5 months. There is the possibility of a severe disruption of the reproductive system with a subsequent long period of rehabilitation.
Gynecologists warn that unauthorized and unreasonable use of drugs can cause serious failures of any organs or systems of organs.
The best solution is an advance visit to a specialist who, having studied the anamnesis, will be able to choose the method of emergency contraception that is most safe for a woman for the future.
Emergency contraception with lactation should be selected with particular care, so as not to harm the child. A young mother will do:
- The installation of an intrauterine device is the safest method. A break in feeding is not needed. In the future, the spiral can become a long-term method of protection.
- The use of hormonal drugs based on gestagens. Such emergency contraception during feeding is permissible under one condition - a break in feeding for 24 hours after taking the pill. At this time, it is necessary to express milk regularly, and feed the baby a mixture.
Feedback on application
Violetta, 23 years old:
"With her husband we use an interrupted sexual intercourse together with the calculation of safe days as a protection. Recently happened unforeseen - my husband did not have time to react. My gynecologist advised as an emergency contraception to buy the drug Escapel. In the pharmacy, it is sold without a prescription, at a democratic price.
I drank, I did not notice any side effects, although I was afraid of it. Monthly started 4 days later. There was a slight shift of the cycle, but it's not scary. The doctor said that it happens. The drug I recommend. "
Nastya, 25 years old:
"In the process of violent sex, they did not notice with a young man that the condom had burst. And I have just the right days for conception. After reading various reviews of emergency contraceptive measures, she stopped on Ginepristone. Allegedly he is capable of even interrupting pregnancy.
After taking the capsule, it was a bit troubled and dizzy. As she drank closer to evening, she did not torture herself and went to bed early. In the morning I did not feel any sickness. And pregnancy has not come. Monthly came on time. All perfectly."