Causes of increase and decrease in average platelet volumes, interpretation of the analysis

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2017.07.28
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Blood test

The average platelet count (MPV) is an important part of a general blood test, evaluating the parameters of the haemostatic (coagulating) system. Blood plates participate in the restoration of the normal shell of the vessel after trauma and providing vascular-platelet hemostasis. Platelets do not have a nucleus and live no longer than 8-11 days. Formed as a result of crushing megakaryocytes in the red bone marrow. Some of them circulate in the bloodstream, and some in the spleen.

Blood plates

Content

  • What is MPV in a blood test?
  • Normal values ​​and decryption of results
  • Reduced average platelet count: how to improve?
  • MPV increased: how to reduce?

What is MPV in a blood test?

A laboratory study on MPV in a blood test determines the number of blood platelets in the bloodstream, their susceptibility to adhesion (adhesion) and maturity. The average size of the "old" blood plates is smaller than the "young" ones. If the number of immature blood platelets in the blood prevails, then the average volume is significantly increased. If there are more mature cells in the bloodstream, the average platelet count is lowered.

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Attention! The blood test for MPV is performed with other laboratory tests. The doctor makes a blood sampling from the finger, which is smeared on the slide and studies. Investigation of the material is carried out in the first two hours after taking a biological sample. Non-observance of time intervals can lead to overdiagnosis and the appointment of ineffective drug therapy.

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Normal values ​​and decryption of results

Normal physiological values ​​of the absolute number of blood platelets vary within wide limits: from 170-410x108 / l. Daily fluctuations in platelet levels are observed: in the evening, MPV is increased by 10%, rather than in the morning.

The number of blood platelets may decrease because of bleeding of various etiologies. Many factors influence the distribution of platelets by volume in the bloodstream. They must be taken into account when conducting a blood sample. The norm in women differs by 30-40% during menstruation.

Important value is played by the average volume of platelet, which in biochemistry is denoted by femtoliters. The volume of blood platelets in adults in 8-9 femtoliters (fl) is considered to be the norm. There are insignificant differences in women and men that are not taken into account in the analysis. In children under 5 years the indicator is reduced to 7-8 fl. Even a slight decrease in MPV in a child can end fatal. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out constant monitoring of children's blood counts in order to begin treatment of possible pathological conditions.

If the platelet distribution rate by volume is increased or decreased is a sign indicating the presence of pathology in the hematopoietic system.

Reduced average platelet count: how to improve?

If the average volume of platelets is lowered, this is a sign of the predominance of immature blood plates in the bloodstream. Often this condition leads to a decrease in the function of the hemostatic system, which is fraught with severe bleeding. The average volume of platelets is lower in diseases:

  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Oncological diseases.
  • Splenomegaly.
  • Aplastic anemia.
  • Myelodispaltic syndrome.

Some drugs can cause thrombocytopenia. Analgin, acetylsallicylic acid and biseptol inhibit the production of platelets by the red bone marrow, which leads to low MPV. Often the indicator is reduced due to malnutrition.

Severe bleeding

Low MPV values ​​are fraught with severe bleeding, which can sometimes be stopped. Therapy of thrombocytopenia is aimed at increasing the viscosity of blood and improving its rheological properties. The patient is injected intravenously with preparations containing iron, B vitamins, calcium chloride and other substances. Severe thrombocytopenia requires a blood transfusion, rich in blood platelets. Drug therapy thrombocytopenia is prescribed by a doctor, do not self-medicate.

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Important! Thrombocytopenia often occurs during the first term of pregnancy and creates a lot of trouble - miscarriage or premature birth. To clarify the reason for the decrease in the distribution of platelets by volume, it is necessary to consult with a specialist.

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MPV increased: how to reduce?

The average platelet count is increased when the bone marrow secretes an excessive amount of blood platelets. The increased number of blood plates increases the viscosity of the blood and the risk of thrombosis. In some cases, the increased volume of platelets in the bloodstream is temporary and associated with certain factors:

  • Bleeding.
  • Invasive intervention.
  • Menses.
  • The use of drugs that stimulate the processes of hematopoiesis.

Diseases of various etiologies may cause an increase in the average platelet count. Diseases that cause an increased average platelet count in the blood:

  • Diabetes.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Abuse of psychotropic substances.
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura.
  • The May-Heglin anomaly.
  • Thyrotoxicosis.

If MPV increases, it increases the risk of developing myocardial infarction or stroke. It is dangerous for patients with chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accelerated thrombus formation clogs the blood vessels and interferes with normal blood flow in parts of the body. Depending on which area is affected, the symptoms and consequences of atherosclerosis depend. Small blood clots are not dangerous, however, their development over time can lead to ischemic heart disease. Therapy of an elevated MPV is aimed at lowering the viscosity of the blood. Assign acetylsalicylic acid, which dilutes blood, and other thrombolytic drugs. Correct the diet and exclude "cholesterol" dishes. In some diseases, stenting of the vessels is shown - a mini-invasive intervention in which a stent is inserted into the affected blood vessel. Depending on the etiology of the disease, treatment is prescribed.

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Advice! The reason why the blood platelets in volume above the norm, can determine the attending physician. To make a diagnosis, you may need additional examinations and examination. An integrated approach will help to conduct the correct differential diagnosis and plan effective treatment.

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