Chromomycosis - an infectious disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is caused by fungi of the genus Dimatiateae, colored in a dark color. Microorganisms live in the ground, rotting foliage or wood, straw. In medical practice, the disease is called chromoblastomycosis, black or tropical blastomycosis.
- Clinical picture
- Photo of the disease
- Forms of chromomycosis
- Alternative methods
- Possible risks
Infection usually occurs through trauma. The causative agent enters the skin, penetrates the body through the affected parts of the epidermis. You can get infected with a fungus during a wound with a wooden chip or when you hit the ground on the injured part of the body. Usually, the disease occurs in people of South America, Africa, India. Rare cases have been recorded in the Nordic countries - Finland, Russia, a number of European countries.
The group of special risk includes people whose work is related to land and plants:
- people working in the agricultural sector;
- the population living on the territory of tropical and subtropical climatic zones is due to the fact that people in hot countries often cultivate the land and just walk around it barefoot;
- carpenters and carpenters - because their work is related to wood.
There are a number of factors that predispose to chromomycosis. These include immunodeficiency syndrome, a long and uncontrolled use of corticosteroid drugs, violations of the endocrine gland, burns a significant part of the body. Disease can not be infected from a sick person or animal.
Infection occurs after the microorganism has got on the injured surface. Usually the leg suffers from the disease, and rarely the hands. But there are cases when the abdomen, chest, face was struck. If ignored, the disease becomes chronic. Spores of fungi through the lymphatic system can get into internal organs and even hit the brain.
The incubation period lasts from several weeks to several months. Immediately after infection with the fungus, the following symptoms are usually observed:
- fast fatiguability;
- possibly a decrease in appetite;
- low temperature rise (up to 37.5 degrees).
After a while on the skin becomes noticeable tubercle or a nodule of red color (the surface can be peeling). People do not know what it is and do not pay any attention to it. Over time, the focus of infection is growing, is a plaque, between which the remains of healthy skin can be preserved.
Plaques are covered with scales and crusts, when they dry out, pus is noticeable. The surface of the scales is similar to cauliflower. The injuries are easily traumatized and often bleed. The foci of infection can occupy 10 - 20 centimeters in diameter, in neglected cases it covers the entire shin or thigh.
Photo of the disease
Forms of chromomycosis
The disease was described back in 1911, it was found among the Brazilian population. A complete classification was made in 1950. According to it, there are five stages of the disease:
- Papular-tubercular - the causative agent at this stage still does not cause any discomfort. The bumps just flake.
- Nodular variant of the disease course - on the skin integument large nodules grow. For them, a lobed surface and brown scales of the exfoliating epidermis are characteristic.
- Ulcerative stage - skin lesions gradually increase in size, ulcers are formed.
- Verruccus form - on the skin integuments are formed verrukoses. In form they look like vulgar warts.
- Cicatricial stage - sclerotic sites are formed on the lesions, they can cover the entire leg or arm.
If you suspect a chromomycosis, you should see a doctor. Disease is the dermatologist - mycologist. Initially, he examines the affected area, listens to complaints and compiles a medical history. The final diagnosis can be made only on the basis of the analysis data.
- A general analysis of blood and urine, sometimes you may need a detailed blood test;
- Microscopic and cultural examination of biological material - scrapes, ulcers or pus are taken scraping. The substrates are examined. If they find dark cells of fungi, the patient is diagnosed with chromomycosis.
Therapy of infection is carried out in a hospital. The result depends on the severity of the disease. A complete cure for severe cases can take several years. Fungi are very resistant to treatment.
Treatment of the disease is carried out in several ways. If the situation is not critical, then doctors prescribe conservative medication. In the fight against microorganisms, "Itraconazole". Every day it is recommended to consume 200 to 400 milligrams of the drug. Termination of treatment leads to relapse. Good results are shown by other medicines of a number of azoles: "PosaconazoleKetoconazole".
"Amphotiricin sodium iodide or potassium iodide is prescribed in the hospital. For local use, Gordeev's fluid and pyrogallic patch are prescribed.
If traditional treatment shows its inefficiency, then surgical intervention is performed. Infected tissues and skin are removed by the operative method.
In case of skin and subcutaneous tissue damage, the prognosis of treatment is positive. With all the recommendations, the patient recovers. If the fungus got into internal organs and hit the brain, then the therapy is much more complicated. A lethal outcome is possible..
Treat the disease with similar drugs asgenital candidiasis, candidiasis dermatitis, or a candidemia about her was written earlierhere..
Increased skin temperature is poorly suited for fungi of this category. Thermal therapy promotes drug treatment. The pioneer in the use of heat was Japan. Doctors advised patients to regularly use warmers, applying them to the affected areas.
One third of the people participating in the experiment completely overcame the disease and the fungus disappeared. Half showed positive changes. 12% of people had no positive dynamics.
Often physicians use photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid.
In the absence of treatment, complications may occur. Chromomycosis can lead to the development of elephantiasis, lymphedema, the appearance of scars on the epidermis. Since the foci of infection are large, a secondary infection may join them. There is a risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma.
Preventive measures will lower the risks of infection, but do not give a 100% guarantee.
- When working with soil, decaying foliage, plants should follow the safety rules. Work in shoes, protective clothing, gloves.
- If you are injured during work, then immediately treat it with antiseptic drugs (ideal iodine). If necessary, consult a doctor to treat a large wound.
- As a preventive measure, tools should be treated with formalin or phenol. If possible, the inventory can be boiled for 20 minutes. In these cases, the microorganisms on it will die.
Doctors warn!Shocking statistic - it is established that more than 74% of skin infections - the risk of exposure to parasites (Acquida, Giardia, Toccapara). The cliches will bring about a celestial conflict of oponomism, and the first will affect our immune system, which will have to overcome the incidence of various diseases. The head of the Institute of Parasitology made a decision, as quickly as possible, to kill them and to clear out their skin, which proves to be ...Read more...
Chromomycosis is caused by dark-colored fungi Dimatiateae. When the disease on the skin, ulcers appear, which gradually begin to grow and increase in diameter. Foci of infection can take all of the thigh or lower leg. With timely access to a specialist, the disease is completely cured.