Characteristic of negative Rh factor in women during pregnancy, what should be considered when registering?
Not so long ago, many people who did not know the group of their blood and rhesus, in dire need of emergency help, just perished. As for conception and pregnancy, ignorance of the elementary signs of blood could lead to intrauterine fetal death. Today, it is not difficult to find out whether the future father and mother have a positive or negative factor. This analysis is necessary for family planning and conception, since a woman with negative rhesus has some difficulties in these matters.
According to medical statistics, 15% of women worldwide are carriers of negative factor, but this fact does not prevent them from becoming happy mothers and giving birth healthy children. Doctors are convinced that blood that does not have an antigen D on the surface of the red blood cell is just a peculiar feature of the human biofluid, and not a factor for pathological manifestations.
Because the risks exist only with one combination: Rh (-) in mom, rhesus (+) in the daddy and the baby, in other combinations, bearing the baby does not present any health problems. In addition, if previously this problem did not manifest itself, it is entirely possible that everything will be in order and in the future. But to rely on "maybe" never costs, it is better to be safe and on the first weeks of pregnancy to visit a doctor.
- Rhesus-conflict: what is it?
- The effect of factors on pregnancy
- Both parents with a negative factor: than it threatens?
- As a conclusion
So, let's take a closer look at what the Rh factor is. In fact, this is a specific protein on the surface of red blood cells. Such a protein is attached to red blood cells not in all people, it does not have Rhesus negative. By itself, such a sign of blood poses no threat.
The problem can arise when this negative Rh factor is in a woman. What affects this feature? Due to consultations of gynecologists and gemologists, a woman who is preparing to become a mother and has a (-) type can obtain exhaustive information. In this issue, there is a risk if a woman decided to get pregnant from a man with a positive factor. This can affect the pregnancy and the proper development of the fetus. The situation where the Rh factor in the mother is negative, and the father is positive, means the risk of Rh-conflict. What does it mean?
Rhesus-conflict: what is it?
This implies an immune response of the female body, directed against the Rh-positive cells of the embryo. Simply put, protective cells of the mother's body attack foreign cells of the baby. This does not always happen, but only in cases where, for some reason, the cellular fragments of a baby with positive rhesus, got into the bloodstream of the mother.
Such reasons include:
- Diseases of the reproductive system;
- Blood transfusions prior to pregnancy;
- Mechanical damage to the uterine surface;
- Exhaustion of the uterine wall or amniotic puncture.
Pregnancy with a negative rhesus in the mother and positive in the pope can take place without disastrous consequences for the baby, if the mother periodically sheds blood from the vein. This is necessary in order to know in time about the increase in the number of antibodies in the bloodstream. To do this, the antigen is added to the blood and see if there is a reaction - the cleavage of this protein. If there is. then the amount of antibodies formed is determined.
The appearance of antibodies to antigen D means the introduction into the bloodstream of a future mother of an immunoglobulin - a substance that blocks the synthesis of monocytes. When neutralizing the synthesis of these protective substances, the risk of complications in the development and growth of the baby is reduced.
The effect of factors on pregnancy
What is the effect of negative Rh factor in a woman during pregnancy, the consequences to which it is capable Rhesus conflict is the most important issues, unawareness of which can be detrimental to the child.
The lack of medical control over the content of the circulatory system of a pregnant woman can lead to miscarriage, hemolytic diseases of the fetus. Difficulties can be manifested by the 7th week of development and growth of the child. By this time his own circulatory system is being formed. Since this time, a small amount of red blood cells from the fetus through the placenta enters the maternal bloodstream. Here, the protective mechanism of the immune system of the mother can come into activity with the subsequent sensitization (the activity of leukocytes inside the child's body).
The liver and spleen of the fetus suffer the first. They do not cope with the flow of deceased red blood cells, which must be disposed of. The level of bilirubin grows and at a certain concentration this substance penetrates into the brain, damaging it (bilirubin is toxic). For this reason, a dangerous disease - a dropsy of the brain, and corresponding deviations in development - can occur. Rescue the baby in this situation can be a blood transfusion or a caesarean section.
Before conception, if the mother has a negative rhesus, the father has a positive, the following preventive measures are taken:
- Delivery of biomaterial for the study of the number of antibodies in the period up to 18 weeks of pregnancy;
- When the titer is read 1 to 4, the analysis is performed at week 28, if some change in fetal development is noted, then earlier;
- If the indication is not more than 1 to 4, vaccination is given;
- If the protective cells titer is more than 1 to 4 before the 20 week period, a quantity control is assigned every week;
- In a situation where antibodies are still present, the child needs constant monitoring by means of ultrasound, if there is a worsening of the baby's condition, then intrauterine blood transfusion is prescribed;
- In cases where there is no possibility to perform a blood transfusion, a decision is made to stimulate childbirth, since delay is threatening the child's death;
- In the 3-day period, it is required to determine the Rh rhesus of the infant, with the positive factor of the mother, an injection of immunoglobulin is injected, if the need for a prick is no longer necessary;
- If antibodies are not present in the maternal blood, then the question of injection is also eliminated;
- The woman should be vaccinated in cases of abortion, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage or after collection of amniotic fluid.
Both parents with a negative factor: than it threatens?
A very disturbing combination: a negative Rh factor in a woman and a positive in a man, this can lead to negative consequences for the baby. In fact, this is an absurd circumstance, when the mother's organism, is struggling with its own child, not yet born. Pregnancy with a negative Rhesus factor of the mother and a positive in the fetus in the future has a process of sensitization. This term means the penetration of the mother's blood through the placenta and amniotic fluid to the baby, and the active action of antibodies that destroy the cells of the fetus that formed.
The situation of blood conflict between mother and child can affect the baby with the following complications:
- Jaundice, skin of the baby is yellow at birth;
- Anemia of the fetus;
- Deviation from the norm in the direction of enlarging the spleen and liver;
- Disturbance in the formation of the central nervous system;
- Speech and auditory defects;
- Damage to the fetal brain (dropsy congenital).
In the circumstances of the first pregnancy and the negative Rhesus factor of the mother, complications about the birth of a child with pathology can not be affirmed. However, when the second, third fruit is born, the conflict will manifest itself. This effect can be promoted by placental detachment or trivial thinning of the uterine walls.
Due to the first successful birth, the woman triggers the so-called "cellular memory so with the onset of the next conception, the synthesis of antibodies is activated. This is not the antibodies that appear at the first contact (IgM). The first antibodies are large and can not cross the placental barrier.
The second time IgG substances are produced, they are less and successfully penetrate through the placenta tissue, attacking the red blood cells of the fetus. To prevent negative consequences, it is recommended to undergo a medical examination more often than other women waiting for replenishment in the family.
All the warnings of specialists are connected with the growing prospect of the danger of Rhesus-conflict because of unwanted pregnancy and removal of the embryo in the early stages, which leads to sensitization women.
With the successes in the discoveries of blood properties, methods have emerged to eliminate sensation and complications associated with this process. Today, tables of compatibility and determination of blood and rhesus for a wife with negative blood and a positive husband have been developed to help reproduce. They significantly help to give birth to a healthy baby in those families where the parents' rhesus does not coincide..
If a negative Rhesus factor is found in a woman and negative in a man, then there is no risk of conflict, because in this case the baby will also be born with a negative rhesus..
As a conclusion
In general, Rhesus conflict strictly needs medical supervision throughout the period of pregnancy, especially if it is not the first. There is also a reverse picture of this situation: a pregnant woman has a positive Rh, and her husband is negative. However, in this case there are no disturbing factors, and the time of bearing is safe for the mother and the baby.
Despite all of the above, it is worth knowing that the incompatibility of the Rh factor can not be an obstacle to maternity. Complications, according to medical statistics, arise only in 10% of cases, and babies with severe pathologies are born in a ratio of 2-3 to a thousand healthy children.
In some situations, nature, rewarding a person with a powerful protective function, has complicated its reproductive function. But modern science and medicine do not stand still, and through discoveries, research, people began to change the laws of nature... .