What does the analysis on toxoplasm igg show and what is the result of a positive response?
Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic pathology, the causative agent of this disease is a pathogenic microorganism - the toxoplasm of Gondi. Its life cycle is complex, consists of several phases, it takes place with the participation of intermediate and final hosts. The microorganism finishes development inside any of the representatives of the feline family, the disease is spread by our pets - domestic cats.
A high risk of infection with toxoplasmosis is noted with the use of meat or dairy products, prepared without the use of heat treatment, the pathogen can be found in the soil, on vegetables or fruit. The greatest danger is the infection with toxoplasma during the waiting period of the child, so a blood test for toxoplasmosis before planning and pregnancy is mandatory for every woman who is registered with a women's consultation, cytomegalovirus. The study is conducted and with the available symptoms of the disease to confirm the diagnosis.
- Methods of laboratory diagnostics
- What is prescribed on the form of the analysis?
- What will tell the indicators of antibodies to toxoplasma igg?
- Toxoplasma igg and pregnancy
- What are the consequences of the transferred toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, its main signs
- What prevention is needed to avoid infection?
Methods of laboratory diagnostics
To detect the causative agent of toxoplasmosis can be done with the help of a blood test, which must be submitted for examination from the vein at the elbow bend on an empty stomach. The analysis is carried out in the laboratory in two ways:
- immunoenzyme (ELISA) - based on the search for antibodies to a pathogenic microorganism, allows to reliably diagnose a patient, track dynamics of the disease pattern by counting the number of antibodies at different periods of its development, determining the index of avidity of specific antibodies;
- using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - is an absolutely accurate way to identify the pathogen disease, is based on the identification of a unique DNA and RNA specific pathogenic microorganism in the blood patient.
The first method of laboratory diagnosis is the most common. The finished result of the analysis is displayed on the research form, can contain incomprehensible symbols for ordinary people, interpretation of which is the doctor's duty.
Quantitative detection of antibodies to the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in the blood serum by ELISA determines the normative index, three of its values are singled out (measured in units of me / ml):
- negative (non-reactive) indicator - the number of antibodies is less
- positive or reactive - its value is equal to or less than 3;
- doubtful - the value is in the range from, to, units / ml.
If the result of the analysis shows the values characteristic of a dubious or positive titer antibodies, the patient is assigned to studies whose task is to recognize the DNA of the simplest parasites, identify them activity. To hand over urine and blood for analysis two weeks after the initial study, their result will allow to establish the prescription of the disease occurrence, to track other processes in the body.
What is prescribed on the form of the analysis?
The finished result of the analysis contains a lot of information. The presence or absence of immunoglobulins of class m and g in the blood of the examinee makes it possible to conclude that the pathogen toxoplasmosis in a patient, the severity of the disease and the prediction of his further health status, is the basis for the appointment necessary treatment. For the convenience of the work of medical specialists, a table has been created, the interpretation of information from which helps to visually evaluate possible combinations of values.
If antibodies igg to toxoplasma and antibodies of the igm type are not detected, such a blood test is negative, that a person has not developed immunity to the causative agent of the disease, then he never encountered infection toxoplasm.
If the analysis with such results belongs to a pregnant woman or just about to get pregnant with a patient, they need to strictly observe personal hygiene measures. The ban on close contact with domestic animals is imposed, since there is a danger of primary infection with a disease, the consequences of which are detrimental to the developing fetus.
Combination of antibodiesigmpositive andiggnegative may mean primary toxoplasmosis, it proceeds in an acute form. The doctor should prescribe the patient medication and additional diagnostic tests..
The period of infection with the causative agent of the disease is small, most often it is less than two months. Pregnant women need:
- additional infectious disease counseling;
- examination of obstetrician-gynecologist;
- conducting a study of fetal development.
If the analysis showed the simultaneous presence of igg and igm antibodies in the blood sample being examined, the disease is classified as acute, requiring unconditional serious treatment. The condition is dangerous for pregnancy, the health of the unborn child.
The presence of igg antibodies against the background of the absence of antibodies of the igm type in the patient's body proves that toxoplasm in the human body are present for a long time, its immunity is able to independently combat them, drug treatment for the patient is not it takes. For pregnant women, this condition is not dangerous.
What will tell the indicators of antibodies to toxoplasma igg?
Toxoplasmosis igg positive in the absence of other antibodies to the causative agent of the disease is a condition that is not dangerous for a person and which does not cause fear in the prenatal development of the child. Antibodies of class g, developed by the body to toxoplasm, directly indicate that the patient had contact with parasitic microorganism, while his body actively struggled with it and developed independently immunity. In the future, repeated infection of a person with toxoplasm is impossible because of the persistent protective properties of its immune system.
Many patients who submitted an analysis for toxoplasmosis are interested in whether there is a standard or an acceptable level of igg antibodies. Modern medicine does not distinguish the notion of "the norm of antibodies of class g" - they are either present or absent in humans, the amount is not has significance for the performance of their main function - the violation and complete suppression of vital processes in an aggressive parasite. The presence of igg-antibodies indicates an acute form of the disease and a long period of its development, their limit is not important for diagnosis.
Toxoplasma igg and pregnancy
Toxoplasmosis class igg positive, revealed during pregnancy, should not bother future mother. Family planning involves before this important stage for a woman to undergo an analysis on carrier of infectious diseases, which also gives real results for toxoplasmosis. This is important for the formation of the health of her future baby, inadmissibility of development of anomalies during intrauterine development.
For a pregnant woman, as for other patients, a combination of antigen types is important. Antibodies of the igm type should not be combined with igg, their simultaneous detection is the main sign of the development of the disease at present, which can lead to dangerous changes in the embryo and its death. Their detection signals a primary infection of a woman, which happened recently, up to one month.
Treatment of the disease is possible only with a certain period of development of the fetus - not earlier than the second trimester of pregnancy. If treatment is neglected, the risk of premature birth is much increased, and pregnancy can be interrupted due to fetal fading. Timely detection, quality treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy can significantly reduce the risk of pathology, remove the negative factor for the normal course of pregnancy.
What are the consequences of the transferred toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, its main signs
If toxoplasmic infection occurred during pregnancy, the risk of having a child with abnormalities is high. The most common is:
- absence of limbs, eyes, brain;
- development of hydrocephalus - an increase in the skull due to accumulation of fluid in the child's brain (dropsy);
- delay in physical and mental development;
- the pathology of the skull, its bones and brain - its small size is observed;
- lesions of the eye, retina, complete blindness;
- absence of hearing;
- pathology of the liver;
- neurological diseases;
- change in blood composition, production of a small number of platelets.
Often the disease is asymptomatic, the main signs on which it is possible to identify toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are:
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- increased fatigue and fatigue
- enlarged liver and spleen reactive;
- Strong headache;
- slight increase in body temperature;
- joint and muscle pain.
It is worth noting that such symptoms are typical for many other diseases. Their appearance, especially in the period of waiting for the child, is a sufficient occasion to apply to a medical institution for counseling and diagnosis.
What prevention is needed to avoid infection?
At the heart of the prevention of toxoplasmosis is the implementation of well-known standards of hygiene, compliance with the rules of keeping pets, the choice of safe methods for cooking.
If a woman does not have a serostatus before pregnancy, she is not sure if she has in the body antibodies to the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, it is recommended to submit an assay confirming their presence or absence. It can be done in a community clinic, or in a private medical center, for example, in a network Clinic Invitro in Moscow and the Moscow region, where such analyzes are done quickly, reliably and competitively price.
Sharply worsened state of health, detection of one or more symptoms of toxoplasmosis, fears after contact with animals - obvious reasons to see a doctor, take tests and, if necessary, begin treatment of a dangerous parasitic disease.
In fact, the disease is extremely dangerous, if it is not detected on time. Serious consequences for children infected in the womb is difficult to avoid, so the attention and timeliness of comprehensive diagnosis in pregnant women is simply necessary. More about the toxoplasmosis and possible complications, says Dr. Komarovsky E. ABOUT. in one of the editions of its self-titled program:
About what is fraught with infection for adults, about the measures for the prevention and diagnosis of the pathological process, how to help the patient, is described in the video... .