Conducting immunological studies: indications, rates and deviations
Immunological studies can assess the level of protective functions of the body. Such diagnostic methods are prescribed for patients suspected of an autoimmune, infectious or parasitic disease. Analyzes of the immunological character make it possible to identify hormonal disorders, to accurately determine the group and Rhesus factor of blood, to recognize allergic and autoimmune processes, to establish tissue and tumor antigens.
- What is immunity?
- Indication for the study
- Immunological methods of research
- Preparation for the analysis
- Norms of indicators of immunological analysis of blood. Explanation
- Advantages of immunological diagnostics
What is immunity?
The immune system is responsible for the protective functions of the body. Protects a person from the effects of foreign microorganisms and substances from outside. Destroys the non-functional and old cells of the body. Strong immunity provides resistance to viruses, bacteria, parasites and other infections. But if the work of the system is disrupted, the human body is prone to disease. Immunological examination of the blood makes it possible to assess the patient's condition and identify abnormalities.
Currently, doctors record a decline in overall immunity in the population, which is associated with many factors: a bad ecological situation, the socio-economic sphere is heavy, which entails permanent stress. Against these background, a secondary immune deficiency state develops.
Immunity is weak after taking medication, or the virus disease has passed into a chronic form. The disease from time to time recurs and has a depressing effect on the not quite healthy immune system. Immunological methods of research are appointed by the attending physician to determine the state of the body's defense system.
Indication for the study
The blood test for immunity is carried out according to the doctor's prescription. Indications for this can be such states:
- presence of oncological neoplasms (reduce the functions of the immune system);
- frequent diseases of viral and infectious etiology;
- autoimmune diseases;
- immune disorders of a hereditary or acquired character;
- repeated allergy of different origin;
- surgical intervention (organ transplantation and other complex operations);
- taking medications that affect the changes in immunity.
The doctor will prescribe the immunological studies if available:
- diabetes mellitus type I and II;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- cytomegalovirus infection;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- bronchial asthma;
- postpartum depression and prolonged depressive conditions;
- venereal diseases, and so on.
The immunity assay for the detection of alloimmune antibodies is carried out in such cases:
- a newborn was diagnosed with hemolytic disease;
- before blood transfusion;
- during pregnancy, if a woman has a negative Rh factor;
- with frequent miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, fetal fading.
Immunological methods of research
Pathogenic microorganisms have different effects on the body, so immune responses are not the same. For the diagnosis to be correct, you need to carefully select an immunological test.
The research is divided into two groups:
- Indirect. Histology, instrumental and serological tests.
- Straight lines. Diagnostic DNA studies, immunofluorescence, microscopy, bacteriological analyzes.
Immunological analysis- an important element in the diagnosis of serious pathologies that threaten the body's defense system. With the help of such a study, an effective treatment regimen is developed..
An immunochemical blood test is common. Detects the presence of antibodies through biochemical reactions. Venous blood is used for the research.
Immunology is one of the sections of medicine that studies the protective properties of the body and the reaction of immunity to infection. Therefore, a specialist in this field is an interpreter of studies - an immunologist.
Preparation for the analysis
Before you donate blood for analysis, you need to prepare for the procedure:
- The last meal is 12 hours before the test. During this period, give up drinks, drink only water without gas.
- Drinking alcohol will give the wrong result of the study. To ethanol completely removed from the body, it takes several days, so it is forbidden to drink alcohol 2-3 days before the procedure.
- If the patient is a smoker, abstain for half an hour before taking the test.
- It is not recommended for a day or two before the procedure to eat too fatty, salty or fried foods.
- Women should not take tests during critical days.
- It is not recommended to undergo tests after X-ray examination, physiotherapy treatment, etc.
- 30 minutes before the procedure, the patient needs to calm down, stabilize the emotional and physical state, since stress affects the result of the analysis.
- When taking medication, it is necessary to notify a specialist about it, as some of the chemical elements contained in the preparation affect the results.
Immunological tests are taken in the morning.
The table below shows the decoding of the norms of indicators in adults and children when passing a general blood test.
Norms of indicators of immunological analysis of blood. Explanation
To determine the interpretation of the analyzes, you need to know the normal indications of immunoglobulins (calculated from the calculation of g / l):
- Alloimmune antibodies - 0.
- Ig class E - 30-240.
- Ig of the class M .
- Ig class G - 7-17.
- Antibodies of class A .
- Antinuclear factor - 0.
- AT-TPO - not more than,.
- AT-TG - less,.
- HLA - 0.
There are other indices of the immunological test:
- MAR-test - no more than 50%.
- ELISA - less than 60.
- Antistreptolysin - 100-200 units / ml.
If the norms have deviations (elevated or decreased indices), this indicates a disease.
Immunological diagnosis allows you to put the right diagnosis. What diseases can be suspected when the immunoglobulins are elevated?
- ELISA data above the norm indicate infertility.
- Increased indicator of antibodies immunoglobulin E indicates the presence of parasitic disease or allergic pathology (asthma, urticaria, hay fever, allergic rhinitis and others).
- Overestimated immunoglobulin M data indicate liver diseases, including hepatitis, acute forms of infectious pathologies, rheumatoid arthritis and candidiasis.
- The increased norm of AT-TPO speaks about diseases of the thyroid gland, autoimmune diseases.
- Immunoglobulin G at high rates indicates the presence of HIV infection, arthritis, rheumatic condition, myeloma, etc.
- Increase in the norm of AT-TG indicates Down syndrome, hypothyroidism and other genetic diseases.
- MAR-test above normal indications speaks about male infertility.
- A high antinuclear factor indicates the presence of one of the diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, hepatitis, lupus erythematosus.
- Elevated levels of immunoglobulin A may be a response to hepatic insufficiency, alcohol intoxication, glomerular nephritis, arthritis and other diseases.
- If the blood contains more than 200 units / ml of anti-streptolysin, this indicates the presence of one of the pathologies: streptococcal infection, rheumatoid infection, acute form of glomerulonephritis.
Advanced immunological studies reveal serious disturbances in the functioning of the immune system..
Not only an increased level of immunoglobulins indicates a problem. For example: with a low Ig class E, diseases associated with vasodilation and motor impairment develop. But Ig A, M and G at a lowered norm testify to cirrhosis of the liver and radiation sickness. The norm may go down due to poisoning.
In some cases, the indicators are reduced due to physical fatigue and stress..
In young children up to 6 months, there may be a decrease in the level of immunoglobulin against the background of physiological characteristics. Also, the decrease in indices can be caused by the use of cytostatics and immunosuppressants..
The interpretation of the analysis is incorrect if a woman donated blood for research during the menstrual cycle. For this reason, it is not recommended to undergo the procedure during the critical days.
Advantages of immunological diagnostics
Screening immunological studies can reveal in which immunity chain there are deviations. Such an analysis determines the capabilities of the human body in confronting bacterial and viral infections. In the process of the study, immunity indices, antibodies to the stimulus are determined.
It is worth noting the advantages of diagnostics:
- High accuracy and reliability.
- You can do the research in a short time.
- Identify the pathology can be in the early stages of development.
- Conducting an immunological study of blood can establish a diagnosis in a difficult situation.
This method of research plays a special role in the diagnosis of serious diseases: oncological pathologies, poisonings, allergic reactions, autoimmune diseases, disorders reproductive functions... .