How is the general blood test done? The definition of norms in women by age in the table
General (clinical) analysis of capillary blood is the foundation of any diagnostic and preventive examination. Indicators of this analysis do not include any specific estimates, that is, they can not accurately confirm a specific disease, but the norms of a general analysis of a blood sample in a man, woman or child are able to tell a lot to the the doctor.
This study allows you to choose the right method for further diagnosis and learn about the overall health of the patient. Therefore, a clinical blood test is prescribed every year and in cases where the patient has any complaints and painful symptoms. This analysis is considered standard for urgent hospitalization, clinical examination and routine examination.
Biochemical analysis is different from clinical. It shows how the internal organs work, shows the percentage of vital microelements, hormones, sugar, lipoproteins and vitamins in the blood.
To learn to understand the deciphering of UAC and in the norms for adult women and men, you can independently learn the basic tables. However, for this it is necessary to have elementary medical knowledge, to get acquainted with the notation in Latin, which occur in forms with the answers of analyzes. To begin with it is necessary to understand correctly, what exactly characterize those or other parameters of blood.
- Carrying out the analysis
- The general or common analysis of a blood: norm or rate at women on age the table
- Color metric
Carrying out the analysis
As well as many other diagnostic examinations, for clinical analysis the clinic needs to come on an empty stomach in the morning. As a response, a woman receives a table with a transcript of a general laboratory blood test. This form is prepared for several hours, and then transferred to the treating doctor or in the hands of the patient.
The following parameters are considered in the UAC:
- The amount of hemoglobin;
- Red blood cells;
- Color index of blood;
- Number of reticulocytes;
- Platelet level;
- ESR (ESR);
- Leukocytes represented as a leukocyte formula.
Let us consider each characteristic in more detail.
The general or common analysis of a blood: norm or rate at women on age the table
One of the main indicators of clinical research is the level of erythrocytes. It's about the red blood cells that make up the most numerous group of blood cells. These particles provide transportation of oxygen throughout the body.
In erythrocytes there is a protein - hemoglobin, to which "oxygen" adheres. If the value of this indicator in a woman is higher or lower than the norm, then one can judge the presence of pathology: anemia, weakening of immunity, a recently transferred infection.
However, the reasons for the deviations may be more dangerous. If the amount of hemoglobin is too low in the analysis, then an additional examination is necessary. And overestimated indicators are much less common, mainly they indicate hematological pathologies or dehydration.
If the study showed that the norm of the red blood cells directly is too high, this can confirm the lung disease, the transferred stress, the cardiac defect.
Norm for adults:
- The standards for erythrocytes in patients of both sexes are the same mln. for 1 μl;
- The norms for hemoglobin are different, in women they are - 119-141 g / l;
- Normal hemoglobin for the male is 130-161 g / l.
The difference is due to the fact that during menstruation or during pregnancy in women the hemoglobin content decreases. In young and adulthood, the values of the norm may also vary.
If the level of red blood cells is underestimated, it can tell about the lack of a woman's vitamin B12 in the body or about the presence of bleeding. When menstruation shows a physiological drop in the level of erythrocytes - this is not considered a pathology.
Physiologically, the elevated index of these cells is found in people living in the mountains - this is the norm for them. To clarify the diagnosis, you may need to pass other tests.
If red blood cells rise, this may indicate that the patient has problems with the system of breathing, blood formation or with the heart.
Reticulocytes are immature erythrocytes, which later grow in the body. By the speed of their occurrence in the circulatory system, the doctor can find out how well the bone marrow, blood and kidneys of the patient function.
In adult women the indicator is considered normal, %, and for the male 3,%. A high value of this parameter can be considered the norm if before the analysis a person lost a large amount of blood. The body tries to restore the level of red blood cells. And if this was not, then a high proportion of reticulocytes in comparison with older cells confirms the presence of pathogenic agents in the body. In cancer patients, too high a content of these cells indicates the spread of metastases.
If the percentage of reticulocytes is too low in comparison with the table of norms of UAC in women, this is a sign of damage to the kidneys or bone marrow. Sometimes this indicator is deciphered as exhaustion of organs after a long compensatory erythropoiesis.
This parameter determines the rate of erythrocyte cell sedimentation. Usually, the norm of the general blood test for men (table above) shows a value of not more than 15 millimeters per hour. For women, the norm is the same. If the rate increases twice, it is considered a sign of inflammatory pathology, intoxication or a large loss of blood.
This characteristic allows you to know the degree of saturation of erythrocyte cells with hemoglobin. The norm is from 40 to 370 grams per liter. If, in deciphering the UAC analysis, the women are underestimated, this indicates iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia. Elevated values are a sign of hyperchromic or macrocytic anemia, when there are few erythrocytes in the blood, but they are large and contain too much hemoglobin.
The main task of platelets is to stop bleeding due to blood clotting (thrombus formation). Normal is the platelet count from, to, gram per liter. If the result is too high, the doctor can judge the presence of trauma, the appearance of malignant cells and other pathologies. However, a high content can be taken as the norm, if on the eve of a person had an operation.
Underestimated platelets often talk about intoxication with chemicals or the presence of an infectious disease, chronic or acute leukemia. The answers to the study of platelets can affect some of the medications used by the patient. So the doctor must know about this.
These blood cells are considered protective. When a blood test is performed, the transcript, the norm in women can tell the doctor if the body is ready to fight with viruses, infections and harmful microorganisms or toxic substances. The normal indicator is somewhat different in age and sex of patients.
If the values of white blood cells are lower than normal, this indicates blood pathologies, viral infections, adverse effects of the use of certain medications, hepatitis. If the level is overestimated, then it is deciphered as having a bacterial infection or significant bleeding in the body.
These cells are the structural elements of immunity. The norm of their maintenance should be strictly observed. If the values are underestimated, this indicates a deficiency of the kidneys, chronic diseases of other internal organs, immune disorders.
Normally, these particles make up 55 to 70% of the leukocytes. If the indicators are underestimated, then this is called neutropenia, provoked by infectious lesions. And too high values speak about inflammations, chronic diseases, cancer, heart attack.
These cells in the blood of a healthy person make up 1 to 5 percent of the total number of leukocytes. If their value is exceeded, the doctor can judge about infection with intestinal parasites, allergies and infectious diseases: tuberculosis, scarlet fever. Another possible cause is malignant tumors, leukemia. Reduction of cells is characteristic for lead poisoning or development of sepsis.
The norm of this type of cells is practically not evaluated, since they constitute only,% of all leukocytes. Well, if there is an excess of their normal number, this may be a sign of nephrosis, hypothyroidism, chickenpox, myeloleukemia, allergies to food or medicines, etc... .