Mycosis of smooth skin: varieties and ways of treatment
Mycosis of smooth skin is a disease characterized by the defeat of the skin by a fungal infection. Among the large variety of fungi present in the surrounding space, the greatest pathogenic activity exhibit superficial forms of mycosis: trichophytosis, microsporia, mycosis of brushes and feet, candidiasis and multicolored lichen. Each of the listed diseases has characteristic symptoms, allowing to identify the disease. Treatment of mycosis smooth skin - often a long process, the success of which depends on timely diagnosis, the form of the disease, the general condition of the body..
- 3Mycosis of feet and brushes
- 5Pityriasis (colored, colorful) lichen
This disease, caused by the fungus Trichophyton, is a particular danger to humans due to the special infectiousness and resistance to environmental factors.
There are two forms of trichophytosis:
- Anthropophilic (Trichophyton tonsuraus, violaceum). This form of trichophyton is parasitic on the human body.
- Zoofilnuyu (T. mentagrophytes var gypseum, verrucosum). Mushrooms of this genus are present in animal wool (pets, rodents, cattle).
Anthropophilic trichophytosis is characterized by the appearance on any part of the body of round spots of a reddish color, clearly delimited by a roller of a more saturated color. The red areola of the spots slightly rises above the surface of the skin.The inflammatory foci themselves have a flaking structure and nodular eruptions. If the disease is present on the palms and soles, the foci of inflammation are presented in the form of scaly plates.
In the chronic form of trichophytosis in the neck, forearms, buttocks, limbs, the halo may be absent, and the spots appear blurred.
Zoophilic trichophytosis is transmitted to a person through contact with animals or infected feeds (hay, straw). Zoophilic fungi parasitize on the body, creating inflammatory foci of round or oval shape.
There are three forms of the disease provoked by these fungi:
- surface (in the form of pink-red peeling spots with a rising halo of red color);
- infiltrative (with the formation of an infiltrate on the wound surface);
- suppurative (in the form of inflamed areas with purulent contents under the cortex due to secondary infection).
With pronounced clinical manifestations, the general well-being is disturbed: the body temperature rises, there are signs of intoxication, pain of different intensity, pronounced itching. Timely not diagnosed disease quickly changes from acute to chronic, leaving traces of scarring on the lesions.In order to determine the type of infection and a particular pathogen, the tissue fragment is taken with subsequent culture examination. The results of the analyzes contain valuable information for the dermatologist. Having diagnosed the causative agent of the disease, the doctor makes an individual scheme of treatment, without departing from the classical therapy.
The complex of treatment of trichophytosis includes the following means and measures:
- Antifungal agents of systemic action (Terbinafine, Fucis, Griseofulvin, Lamisil). The doctor makes up the treatment scheme individually.
- Antimycotic agents of local action in the form of a cream, spray, ointment. Often, the formulations are combined (Mikozoral, Mikoseptin, Exoderyl, Lamikon). Serno-tar paste and zinc paste are effective in the presence of infiltration in the focus of inflammation. In secondary infection, a salicylic ointment (2%) is used with antiseptic solutions prior to treatment. In case of damage to hair follicles, the area of their growth is shaved to prevent further infection.
- Antiseptic solutions for the treatment of affected areas of the body. The foci of inflammation are treated with iodine, a solution of ichthyol, furacilin, manganese-potassium, rivanol. In addition to the disinfectant, antiseptics have an anti-inflammatory effect. In the zone of growth of hair can be used salicylic or salicylic-resorcinol collodion with full epilation.
- Antihistamines are indicated for signs of an allergic skin reaction when combing affected areas (L-cet, Loratadin, Suprastin).
- Anesthetics are prescribed in severe pain syndrome (Nurofen, Paracetamol, Ketanov).
- Sedative drugs correct the psychoemotional state (Sedavit, Persen, Notta, tincture of valerian, motherwort).
- Immunomodulators of plant and synthetic origin are used to increase the resistance of the organism (Immunal, Viburkol). Complex treatment is supplemented with vitamin complexes.
- Balanced diet. Preference should be given to natural protein products, vegetables, fruits, cereals, wholemeal. From sweets, flour, fatty, smoked and preservatives should be discarded.
- Complete personal hygiene. With daily hygiene procedures, the affected areas are covered with a tile-shaped patch to prevent the spread of the infection. If mycosis of smooth skin is detected, treatment also involves the treatment of the hair growth zone with means with fungistatic action (tar soap, Nizoral shampoo).
Treatment of trichophytosis requires an integrated approach. Leave no attention to structural changes in the skin can not be. Not diagnosed in time, the disease is dangerously dangerous consequences. The fungus trichophyton spreads quickly, involving a healthy tissue in the inflammatory process.
Preventive maintenance trihofitii is reduced to observance of personal hygiene, absence of contacts with potentially dangerous sources (people, animals, the infected surfaces and clothes). The clothes of a sick person should be washed at a temperature of 90 degrees, several times ironing. These recommendations apply to bed linen, towels. After any contact with animals, you should wash your hands with soap, avoid stray cats and dogs.
Microsporia is no less common type of mycosis, caused by the fungus Microsporum canis. Infection mainly occurs when contacting animals. People rarely become carriers of the disease. The microsporium is also revealed in the open ground, sand. Diseases are more prone to younger children. Fungal infection they can pick up in the sandbox or playing with an infected animal. Especially dangerous is the microsporium because of its resistance to environmental factors. It can be present for years in the layer of the epidermis and on the hair, without showing pathogenic activity.
The treatment schedule for microsporia is as follows:
- Antimycotic agents of local action. They are used for minor skin lesions in places where hair is absent. For the treatment of foci, use sulfur-tar ointment, cream Mikoseptin, Mifungar, Lamikon spray, Lamizil ointment and other preparations.
- Antifungal agents of systemic action are indicated for multiple skin lesions or in an advanced stage of the disease. If your hair is affected, then you can not do without systemic drugs. In such cases, take Fucis, Griseofulvin, Exifin.
- Antiseptic treatment of the affected surface. In this case, effective: salicylic alcohol, glycolic acid, alcohol solution of iodine, brilliant green or methylene blue. After antiseptic treatment, the inflamed areas are treated with antimycotics.
- Symptomatic therapy is indicated when unpleasant symptoms appear: itching and pain.
- Disinfection of bedding, personal care products and wardrobe items is a prerequisite. Lingerie must be boiled in a soap-soda solution (10 grams of soda and soap will be needed for 1 liter of water) for 10-15 minutes, and then ironed on both sides several times.
- Control over the course of the disease is a necessary condition throughout the treatment of infection. Using Wood's lamp and the control culture after the symptoms have been eliminated are applied three times every three days.
Prevention measures are the same as in the treatment of trichophytosis.
Mycosis of feet and brushes. There are several types of fungi that parasitize the surface of hands and feet. But the most common in dermatology is Trichophyton rubrum. In general statistical data, it occupies 90% of all cases of damage to these parts of the body. Epidermophyton floccosum, referred to yeast-like fungi, is rarely diagnosed.
The main location of these fungi is interdigital folds of the skin, where favorable conditions for their life are created.
Depending on the form of the disease, characteristic features are identified that allow one to identify the disease before bacteriological examination.
There are three forms of mycosis:
The squamous form is characterized by structural damage to the skin of the palms, soles (interdigital folds) in the form of annular or lamellar ecdysis. If the focus of inflammation spreads along the arch of the foot or palm, then in this zone there is a pronounced cutaneous pattern.
The second form (intertriginous) - with more vivid signs: pronounced desquamation and reddening of the affected areas.This form is the most common. It quickly passes into the dyshidrotic with the formation of bubble rashes of different sizes. Fusing, they form a wound surface with wetness and erosion. Accession of secondary infection provokes an increase in inflammation with the appearance of pustules.
The squamous form of mycosis precedes lymphadenitis. With dyshidrosis, when there are bubble rashes, inflammation spreads to nearby tissues.
Squamous-hyperkeratotic form of mycosis is represented in the form of otrebusal peeling in the interdigital zones against the background of a cyanotic skin tone. In patients of young age, clinical manifestations are more pronounced: deep cracks under the fingers, abundant vesicle rashes, turning into eczema. Fungal infection can spread to the forearm, the shin in the form of annular rash elements.
Accession of pathogenic flora worsens the clinical picture. Affected areas become swollen, painful (especially when walking). Bacterial infection provokes a worsening of the general condition: an increase in body temperature, an increase in lymph nodes. The signs of rubrophytic resemble other diseases of infectious genesis (systemic lupus erythematosus, dyshidrosis, eczema, psoriasis, allergic dermatoses).
Treatment of mycosis of the feet and brushes involves the use of the following medicines:
- Antifungal preparations of local action in the form of ointments, cream, spray and other medicinal forms (Mycosoril, Nizoral, Mikozan, Lamikon, Mifungar, Mikoterbin). On average, the course of treatment is 10-14 days. Later they switch to sulfur-tar ointment. In the presence of heavy rashes, the use of agents containing corticosteroids (Travocort, Lorinden, Mikozolon) is indicated. With secondary infection - Triderm, Pimafukort.
- Antimycotic agents of systemic action are prescribed if local treatment is ineffective, as well as in advanced stages of the disease (Fucis, Terbinafine, Fluconazole).
- Desensitizing agents are used intravenously or intramuscularly when expressed inflammatory process and violation of general health (a solution of sodium thiosulfate, calcium chloride, calcium gluconate).
- Antiseptic solutions for the treatment of foci (a solution of methylene blue, resorcinol, boric, glycolic acid, fucocine, zinc powder chinchol).
- Antihistamines and sedatives are used symptomatically.
- Treatment of the interdigital zone and shoes with powder Dactarine, powder on the basis of wormwood, celandine, oak bark and pine needles, spray powder Odaban.
CandidiasisThis disease causes yeast-like fungus Candida, which is considered opportunistic. It is part of the microbial landscape of the skin and mucous membranes.
Pathogenic activity of Candida manifests under the influence of provoking factors:
- systemic diseases of the endocrine, digestive, urogenital system;
- decreased immunity;
- infection with sexual contact with the carrier of infection;
- irrational use of antibacterial and hormonal drugs;
- production factor (constant skin-water contact);
- unbalanced food (an abundance of sweets);
- non-observance of rules of personal hygiene (especially in pediatrics).
The main places of localization:
- wrinkles on hands and feet;
- interdigital folds;
- area of axillary hollows;
- interannual fold;
- folds under the mammary glands.
Therapy of candidiasis mycosis is carried out according to the classical scheme of treatment of fungal diseases. The doctor determines the therapy regimen and the duration of the treatment course on an individual basis.
Pityriasis (colored, colorful) lichen
This kind of mycosis causes yeast-like fungus Malassezia furfur. It is also part of the microbial skin landscape. When there are provoking factors, the fungus is activated, causing the disease.
The main reasons for the appearance on the body of lichen are:
- increased sweating (dysfunction of sweat glands, production factor);
- systemic diseases of the endocrine, digestive system;
- excess body weight;
- decreased immunity;
- unbalanced diet (hard diets);
- stress factor.
Mycosis of smooth skin has the following symptoms:
- spots of different colors (from pale pink to brown hue) with a brighter edging that appear on any part of the skin;
- unification of peeling spots in groups resembling a globe;
- whitish spots when exposed to ultraviolet rays (sun rays) against a background of healthy skin.
The treatment regimen of pityriasis provides antifungal therapy. Preference is given to preparations containing imidazole and triazole derivatives (Exifin, Mikozan, Kanison).
To treat color deprivation begin preparations of local action. And only when inefficiency goes to system.The emphasis is on the treatment of concomitant diseases, increasing the resistance of the body. Often, the trigger mechanism for the development of pityriasis is the transferred stress. In this case, the course of antidepressants and sedatives is indicated. The rest of the medications are symptomatic.
The main preventive measures include:
- observance of personal hygiene (only personal items);
- reduction of stay in conditions that promote active perspiration;
- balanced nutrition (body mass correction);
- elimination of other provoking factors.