Features of the analysis of nail fungus and where to take it
Onychomycosis - a very common disease these days, and you can confirm or deny it by giving an analysis of the nail fungus. The success of treatment largely depends on the stage of the disease it started, and therefore timely and accurate diagnosis is of decisive importance in this regard. On the one hand, due to the fact that about one quarter of the adult population of the planet suffers from this disease, its main external symptoms are well known even to the layman, on the other - their presence is not in all cases means onychomycosis, because similar signs may have other pathologies of non-miracle origin: hereditary and occupational diseases, deep stages of avitaminosis, etc..
- 1Causes and Symptoms
- 2Basic diagnostic methods
- 3Sampling and analysis
Causes and Symptoms.
The culprit of the occurrence of mycosis nails can be any of the representatives of the following varieties of pathogenic microflora:
- Yeast Candida.
- Moldy Aspergillum.
The main external manifestation of fungal damage is that the nail is deformed, thickens or changes color. The disease develops slowly enough, but in the absence of treatment can lead to complete destruction of the scute and exposure of the nail bed. The toes and hands are very unattractive. But the main danger of the disease is not at all the aesthetic side of the problem. Starting with the "colonization" of external tissues and without encountering resistance in its path, fungal mycelia penetrate into the bloodstream and capture internal organs - the larynx, lungs, esophagus, intestines. Cope with a similar form of infection is incomparably more difficult, in connection with which to treat onychomycosis, like any other pathology of the mycotic nature, is necessary at an early stage. And the first step in this direction is to clarify the diagnosis.
Basic diagnostic methods
Among the main ways to establish the presence of a fungal mycelium and determine its variety, we can name the following:
- Microscopy of tissue samples.
- Bacterial sowing.
- Biochemical and clinical blood tests.
- PCR technique.
Sampling and analysis.
I'll tell you in more detail about how to pass the analysis on the nail fungus:
- The procedure for taking tissue is often presented as something very unpleasant, and is often feared. In fact, there is nothing wrong with that. With the help of special tools, the lab technician makes a painless scraping from the nail plate and the skin surrounding it, or hears a tiny piece of the scutellum. At the same time, sensations are similar to cutting. Then this scraping is sent to the laboratory for in vitro research, i.e. under the glass of the microscope, which allows us to determine the variety of microflora according to the external features of the structure of the mycelium.
- Another way to study tissue - bacterial culture, means placing it in a special nutrient medium, where fungal spores begin to multiply intensively. After that, they are tested for susceptibility to certain medications to determine which ones to use for treatment.
- In a sample of the nail fungus from the vein, 2 ml of blood is taken with a syringe, after which the sample is also sent to the laboratory for the investigation of the in vitro for the detection of fungal mycelia in it. If the hemostat shows their presence in this substance, it means that the disease has gone far, and the patient needs intensive treatment, after which he will have to pass a second analysis to be sure of his effectiveness.
- Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR diagnostics, is performed both in the analysis of external tissues (scraping) and in blood testing. It allows to determine the type of fungal microflora with 100% accuracy by isolating its DNA structure.
Sometimes it is enough to apply one of the methods to establish the diagnosis - for example, scraping can help to determine onychomycosis in the initial stage - but more often a complex study is conducted.
Having passed all the necessary tests, the patient must wait for their results, respectively, with which he will be assigned a course of antifungal therapy. You need to be prepared for the fact that such treatment can take more than one week, since the scute grows slowly, and you can only consider yourself recovered after growing a healthy nail plate. Confirm recovery should be repeated tests - without this interrupt treatment, even in the case of complete disappearance of all external signs of the disease, in any case impossible..