What is mushroom mycosis, and how to treat it?

Mushroom mycosis is a malignant tumor localized in lymphoid tissues, it is characterized by excessive proliferation of T-helpers of the main body and skin systems. However, the damage to organs and lymph nodes occurs only in the late stages of the development of the disease.

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Mushroom mycosis is a serious disease, there are several types of disease. It develops in several stages. Diagnosis is carried out through special studies and analyzes.

Content

  • 1How to identify the disease
  • 2Symptoms of the disease
  • 3Varieties of fungal mycosis
  • 4Diagnosis of the disease
  • 5Effective methods of treatment

How to identify the disease

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Often the disease occurs in three characteristic stages:

  1. Erythematous.
  2. Plaque.
  3. Tumor.

Detection of fungal mycosis at the first stage is complicated by a great similarity with manifestations of common skin diseases, for example, psoriasis or eczema. As a result of similar symptoms, the detection of the disease in the erythematous stage is extremely rare, a thorough immunohistochemical study can help.

Immediately after the problem is detected, treatment should be started, since the probability of successful therapy increases several fold at the first stage.
Mushroom mycosis occurs in one patient out of 345 000, with 70-80% of patients being between the ages of 40-60. Men are sick more often than women. Mainly the development of the disease is affected by the formation of T-lymphocytes, or rather their further transformation into malignant cells. Determine the cause of these metamorphosis failed to this day. Although there is a suggestion that the process is activated due to heredity and constant differentiation, and also the proliferation of cells when the antigen enters the body, when the viral disease begins develop.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease is divided into three stages. Each of them increases the size of the lymph nodes, usually the femoral and inguinal, in other words, there is lymphoma. The body temperature increases, the patient wakes up in a cold sweat.

Most patients complain of trophic pathology:

  • hair and nails grow with irregularities;
  • skin pigmentation is greatly enhanced;
  • increase or vice versa, no perspiration.
Sometimes there is a malfunction in the mucous membranes. In this situation, spots appear on the palate. Due to good conditions for "life" they turn into growing ulcers. Depending on the stage of the disease, the nature of the manifestations is different.

At each stage the disease shows characteristic signs:

  1. Erythematous stage. First there are spots of red color, sometimes their size reaches 20 cm in diameter. Their surface shines or flakes. Spots appear on any part of the body. Often it is accompanied by itching and unpleasant sensations.
  2. Plaque stage. The transition from the first stage to the second is a fairly long process, which often reaches several years, in some cases even 8-10 years. In the second stage, the spots thicken, towering over the epidermis, and their inner part is filled with an infiltrate - they turn into full-blown papules. The area gradually increases, acquiring a crimson hue, the upper layer becomes tuberous. In this case, the degree of itching is significantly increased. The lack of proper therapy leads to a regular increase in the area of ​​papules. In the future they connect, hitting large areas of the body.
  3. Tumor stage. At the last stage of the formation of tumors, they can reach the size of a mature orange. The formation of new spots continues, the itching and discomfort intensify. After a few weeks, the tumor decreases in size, ulcers appear in their place, their surface is covered with pus, from which the blood periodically leaves. The patient feels malaise, lack of appetite, active weight loss. The third stage is a huge threat to the internal organs, because they appear the same neoplasms as on the epidermis.

Varieties of fungal mycosis

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There are three forms of the disease.

They differ in the way they develop, the methods of treatment, the symptoms and possible consequences:

  • Alibera-Bazin syndrome. On the body appear numerous papillomatous formations. The development process begins with a skin rash with vesicles. It has a chronic nature - the patient has been suffering for tens of years, if not to resort to effective methods of treatment.
  • Erythrodermal Syndrome Allopo-Bene. It is very similar to the previous form, but in this case the histological picture is more pronounced. Significant acanthosis is characteristic - a significant infiltrate, which contains a large number of affected cells.
  • Form Vidal-Broca is very rare, the disease immediately develops from the third stage - with the formation of tumors on the skin. It is possible to make an accurate diagnosis only after a special histological analysis of the epidermis.

Each of these species needs individual treatment. Identify their nature can only specialist after some research. Therefore, therapy should be carried out only after the correct diagnosis of fungal mycosis, some procedures may be unpleasant or costly.

Diagnosis of the disease

When the first signs appear, you should always contact a medical institution, namely an oncologist or hematologist. At the first stage, the blood levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils and leukocytes increase. At the last stage, as well as with erythrodermal syndrome, the number of lymphocytes and leukocytes decreases.

To diagnose the disease, apply immunological studies. Analysis of affected areas of the skin is performed using ultrasound and dermoscopy.

For carrying out histological examination, a certain amount of contaminated tissue is taken, followed by a microscopic examination that helps determine the stage of the disease:

  1. The first stage of the development of the disease fills skin tissues with an excessive amount of fluid, the skin thickens.
  2. At the second stage, the previous processes are aggravated, the cells focus nested.
  3. At the last stage, the infiltrate is formed on all layers of the skin and on the subcutaneous tissue.

To identify the last stage, ultrasound of internal organs is used, as well as chest X-ray. Some studies cause discomfort and discomfort, but the problem can be solved only after an effective diagnosis.

Effective methods of treatment

In treatment, radiation therapy with electrons very well manifested itself, which absorbs energy on external tissues, as well as treatment of affected areas with nitrogen mustard gas. Coping with plaques can be phototherapy and local exposure to glucocorticoids.

Temporarily regress neoplasms can be alkylating agents, but they can be used only if other methods of treatment are ineffective.

Extracorporeal therapy shows a medically effective treatment, mushroom-like mycosis may initially retreat, and then re-form.

Mushroomed mycosis is considered quite a serious disease. After finding the disease on average, the patient lives about 10 years, if you use ineffective methods of treatment or even neglect therapy. If the problem was discovered in the early stages, then the chances for a positive outcome increase tenfold. Treatment at the initial stage guarantees a life expectancy of not less than that of a healthy person. The late stage significantly affects the body, so the prognosis is disappointing - about 3 years.

Skin diseases always cause discomfort and unpleasant sensations, but some of them are a real threat to life, this is the fungoid mycosis, so correct treatment in this case plays a vital role. At the first manifestations of the disease should immediately contact a specialist.
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