All about the prevention of HPV: how to avoid infection and the manifestation of the virus
The human papilloma virus causes the appearance of warts, papillomas, genital warts. Some of its types contribute to the development of background precancerous conditions and malignant neoplasms of the genital organs.According to statistics, cervical cancer is on the third place among all cancer diseases among women. Prevention of papillomavirus leads to a reduction in morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer..
What is prevention and what are its bases? The following groups of preventive measures stand out:
- Primary - measures aimed at preventing infection taking into account transmission routes.
- Secondary - activities aimed at early detection of HPV and diseases associated with it.
- Tertiary - active monitoring of patients who were treated for papillomavirus.
1Primary preventive measures
- 1.1Reducing the risk of sexual transmission
- 1.2Reducing the risk of infection by household contact
- 1.3General Activities
- 1.4Reducing the risk of vertical transmission of infection
2Secondary preventive measures
- 2.1Cytological Screening
- 2.2Visual Screening
- 3Tertiary preventive measures
- 4The role of health education
Primary preventive measures
Infection has three ways of transmission: sexual, contact-household and vertical.
Reducing the risk of sexual transmission
The sexual pathway is recognized as leading in the spread of the human papillomavirus, causing various types of anogenital warts.
Most types of papillomavirus, transmitted through sexual contact, can lead to the development of background precancerous conditions and oncology of the genitals in women and men.
Ideally, there should be one constant sexual partner. Random communication is a major risk factor for infection. A person can become infected not only with sexual intercourse, but also with all forms of sexual contact. Using a condom will reduce the risk of HPV infection by 70%, protect against other sexually transmitted diseases and accidental pregnancy..
After unprotected contact with a new partner, it is recommended to use Epigen Spray Intimate with a preventive purpose. It is an antiviral drug based on glycyrrhizic acid. In the kit there is a special nozzle for the treatment of the vagina.
Hormonal imbalance is one of the most important factors that increase susceptibility to HPV. Therefore, the choice of oral contraceptive should be entrusted to a qualified specialist. The doctor will recommend the woman the appropriate drug and inform about the duration of the procedure.
Reducing the risk of infection by household contact
In this way, viruses are transmitted that cause papillomas on the face and on the body, on the hands and feet. To avoid infection, do not use a common towel, wear someone else's clothes, shoes.
Often, after a visit to the manicure cabinet, very painful okolonogtevye warts appear. Therefore, the procedure for nail care should be carried out by a proven master in the salon, where there is the possibility of disinfection of tools.
The causative agent penetrates the body through small defects on the skin. Therefore, when working with aggressive cleaning agents and when performing work in the garden, rubber gloves should be worn.
Viruses keep active for a long time on wet surfaces, so when visiting a swimming pool, water park and sauna, you should not walk without rubber slippers.
To prevent dryness and cracking of the skin on the hands and feet, it is recommended to regularly use moisturizing creams. Scratches and cuts are treated with an antiseptic and lubricated with medical glue BF 6 or sealed with a bactericidal plaster.
HPV causes disease only in people with weakened immunity, so strengthening the body's defenses is an important component of primary prevention of papillomas.
- rational mode of work and rest;
- adequate physical activity;
- timely treatment of concomitant diseases;
- refusal from smoking and alcohol;
- balanced nutrition;
- complex of multivitamins in winter and spring;
- at immunodeficiency states - observation of the immunologist.
Reducing the risk of vertical transmission of infection
In infants who have received the human papilloma virus from the mother during labor, severe pathology - papillomatosis of the larynx. For the prevention of this disease, before planning pregnancy, a woman is recommended to undergo a screening for HPV and, if necessary, to treat the infection in advance. With a positive result of the analysis, the pregnant woman undergoes local treatment.
In our country since 2006 vaccines have been sold to prevent HPV infection of high carcinogenic risk. They contain viral proteins-antigens obtained by genetic engineering. In response to the introduction of the vaccine, the body produces specific antibodies, which later in the meeting with the virus cause its death. Preparations are safe from the point of view of epidemiology, since they do not contain living pathogens.
Cervarix (Belgium) is a bivalent vaccine that protects against HPV types 16 and 18. Gardasil (USA) is a quadrivalent vaccine containing the components of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 types.
Vaccinations are allowed to be done from 10 years. Start the vaccination before the age of sexual activity. The injection schedule includes 3 injections according to scheme 0 (onset of vaccination) - 2 months. - 6 months. (from the first inoculation). If the recommended terms are not met, the vaccination is considered to have been carried out if 3 vaccinations are given within a year.
The drug is injected intramuscularly into the shoulder. As a rule, the vaccine is well tolerated. Possible short-term redness and tenderness at the injection site. Y,% grafted on the first day, there was a rise in temperature to 3, C and general malaise.
Observation of vaccinated women showed a high level of immunity to human papillomavirus 5 years after vaccination, so specific prophylaxis of HPV is quite effective. In a number of countries (USA, UK, France) vaccination against papillomavirus is included in the national vaccination schedule. Russia, unfortunately, is not included in their number yet.
Secondary preventive measures.
These measures include cytological and visual screening - these are analyzes that can detect the presence of the virus and the dynamics of its development.
All women after 21 years are required to take a swab of cytology from the surface of the cervix. In the laboratory, it is stained using the Pap test, then the structure of the epithelial cells is assessed using a microscope. Such a survey in 60% of cases reveals early stages of neoplasia and cervical cancer. The number of false positive conclusions does not exceed 15%. Carrying out of cytological screening requires high qualification of medical personnel.
Recommended as an alternative to PAP test in remote areas. The method is simple in execution, can be carried out by an average medical professional. When treating the cervix with a solution of acetic acid, the areas of dysplasia acquire a persistent white color - an "acetobel phenomenon".
If there are signs of dysplasia, a woman is referred for an in-depth examination: colposcopy (examination of the neck under a microscope) with a biopsy, HPV analysis by PCR.
Tertiary preventive measures
Women infected with high-risk HPV oncology after the treatment should take a stroke every six months for a cytology. Women with neoplasia of the cervix should, during the first three years, take a smear for cytology every 6 months, later, in the absence of atypical cells and a negative HPV test - annually.
Women with an established diagnosis of cervical cancer after surgical treatment should be observed in the oncology dispensary.
The role of health education
Information work with the public is of great importance in the prevention of HPV at all levels. Information about papillomavirus, its health hazards, the methods of transmission should be covered in newspapers and television programs. In schools with adolescents, there should be conversations about the dangers of early sexual relations, promiscuous sexual relations, ways to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. In polyclinics, information can be delivered to patients in the form of newsletters.
The system of cytological screening was adopted at the state level. In many ways, the effectiveness of preventive measures depends on people's awareness, their attitude towards their health.