What does a blastoma look like? A photo
Blastoma is a malignant tumor, the source of pathological growth is the embryonic cells. In other words, blastomal lesions of internal organs develop only at an early age. Symptoms of the disease are quite diverse and depend on the localization of the tumor. The most common form of this oncology is medulloblastoma, which develops in the posterior cranial fossa and affects the brain tissue. The source of cancer growth in medulloblastnom defeat is the embryonic cells of the cerebellum. Pathology is characterized by infiltrative growth and blurred outlines. Blastoma takes the second place in the structure of pediatric oncology.
The main cause of blast processes is the genetic predisposition, in such cases the cancerous degeneration of embryonic tissues is due to hereditary mutations in the chromosomal apparatus.
Blastoma - photo:
Symptoms of Blastoma
The formation of a cancerous tumor in infancy provokes the development of hydrocephalus, which is due to the unstable union of the bones of the cranial vault. Malignant neoplasm can be concentrated in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
In the human body, the cerebellar structures are responsible for the coordination of movements, a sense of balance and the maintenance of normal muscle tone. In the medulla oblongata there are nerve centers that regulate the function of the larynx, tongue and respiratory system.
Medulloblastoma, as the most common type of blastoma, manifests itself in violation of the corresponding functions. In many clinical cases, patients are observed:
- attacks of intense headache, which is protracted;
- ophthalmic disorders in the form of double vision;
- general intoxication of the body (regular emetic attacks);
- these children often have neurological disorders.
Behavioral pathologies are in increased nervousness, poor academic performance in school, violation of attention and sleep.
In the late stages of blastoma, many patients experience metastatic damage to the spinal cord tissue. Symptoms of secondary cancers are manifested by a disorder of motor activity, pathologies of the pelvic organs, and also painful sensations are concentrated in the region of the back.
Diagnosis of Blastoma
Definition of an embryonic tumor of brain tissues is possible only during X-ray examinations, which are carried out in such ways:
- Traditional radiography:
With the help of radiological rays, in most cases, there is a primary diagnosis of oncological diseases of intracranial lesion. Such a study allows to determine the presence of malignant neoplasm and its localization.
- CT scan:
It is a high-precision X-ray diagnosis of cancer tumors. This procedure involves the implementation of a series of radiological images that are subsequently digitally processed to obtain a detailed image of the pathology zone. Computer tomography indicates the shape, volume and structure of malignant neoplasm.
- Magnetic resonance imaging:
This technique consists in radiological scanning of the body under the influence of an electro magnetic field. The examination is aimed at revealing the exact location of the cancer tumor, its boundaries and the structure of the affected tissues.
If an initial diagnosis is made, there is a need for additional laboratory analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, which is able to detect the presence of cancer cells in tissues of the spinal cord. The need for such an investigation is due to the high incidence of metastasis of the blastoma and the rapid growth of the tumor.
Treatment of blastoma
The main method of anti-cancer therapy for the diagnosis of "blastoma" is chemotherapy. The modern approach to cytostatic therapy is based on an individual approach to each patient, depending on the prevalence of the process and the stage of pathology.
If the pathological neoplasm is placed in a place that allows for an operative intervention, then oncologists recommend a radical surgical operation. Such therapy is aimed at the maximum possible excision of malignant tissues.
The development of medical technology has led to the development of the technique of cyber-knife, which consists in the use of a special robotic surgical apparatus. Such therapy is indicated in the presence of malignant neoplasm in hard-to-reach places of the brain near large nerve centers. In the course of manipulation, the cancer tumor undergoes current exposure to highly active radiological radiation, which ensures the preservation of nearby healthy tissues.
Radiation therapy for the treatment of blastoma and medulloblastoma is not used in patients older than 6 years due to their high toxicity.
The best results of blastoma therapy are indicated by a surgical operation. Carrying out a radical intervention provides 40% postoperative survival. Only timely diagnosis of cancer is a guarantee of a favorable prognosis of the disease..