Central lung cancer
Lungs are a paired organ of the respiratory system and are located in the chest. They provide the body with oxygen and expel carbon dioxide when exhaled. Each lung consists of lobes. The left consists of two parts, and the right one is slightly larger and includes three parts. Air enters the lungs through airways or, as they are called, bronchi.
Centrallung cancer,or bronchial adenoma, is a pathological process of tumor formation in large airways. Cancer damage to the bronchi has a malignant course and is characterized by the occurrence of metastases.
A reliable cause of the mutation in the lungs has not been established to date. However, many researchers among the risk factors for lung cancer revealed:
- Smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 carcinogens. The most toxic are nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates.
- Second hand smoke.
- Inhalation of asbestos vapor. Silicate fibers of asbestos in the pulmonary system persist throughout life.
- Inhalation of radon vapors, which is considered a natural radioactive gas and a product of uranium decay.
Symptoms of central lung cancer
Central Cancer of the Right Lungmay not appear for many years due to the small size of the tumor and the slow growth of the tumor. Clinical manifestations of oncological pulmonary disease are similar to the course of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis.
Central cancer of the right lung, symptoms:
- Shortness of breath (difficulty breathing) is caused by partial obstruction of the major bronchi;
- Stridor is a strange sound when exhaled, which is formed as a result of the passage of turbulent airflow through the narrowed part of the bronchus;
- Cough, fever.
- Cough with an admixture of blood in the phlegm. Such a cough is a sign of late stages of the disease.
Diagnosis of central lung cancer
To establish the diagnosis of lung cancer, the following methods are used:
- X-ray examination of the thoracic cavity organs
On an x-ray, an oncologist can determine a blackout area with a diameter of 3 mm or more. The diagnostic procedure, performed in the lateral projection, makes it possible to diagnose more effectively the central cancer of the right lung.
- Computed tomography of the chest
Allows you to specify the size and shape of the malignant neoplasm.
This procedure is used to visualize abnormal growths on the inner surface of the trachea and respiratory tract of the lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin rubber tube that is inserted through the mouth and throat into the bronchial tree. At the bronchial level, the doctor examines the pathological process.
- MRI of the lungs
Scans the lung tissue and reveals the exact location of the tumor.
- Positron Emission Tomography
It is a specialized method of imaging the neoplasm, which uses low-activity radioactive preparations.
- Cytological analysis of sputum
The diagnosis of lung cancer always requires confirmation of the presence of cancer cells in the body, even if the symptoms of the disease and the X-ray findings indicate an oncology. The simplest way to confirm the disease is to analyze the sputum under a microscope.
This is the method of setting the final diagnosis. To select a part of the pathological tissue through the front wall of the chest between the ribs with a thin needle is puncture.
Treatment of central lung cancer
Lung cancer originating from bronchial tissue is removed by open surgery on the lungs. The operation to remove the pathogenic neoplasm is carried out under general anesthesia. Lymph nodes in the area of a malignant tumor are also subject to excision. Open surgery is the most effective method of treating bronchial adenoma.
For patients who are contraindicated in a radical surgery for health reasons or the age factor, bronchoscopic surgery is recommended. In this method, the affected tissues are removed through a bronchoscope using a laser. Excision of malignant neoplasm in this way has a significant disadvantage in the form of incomplete removal of bronchial adenoma.
In the rehabilitation period, it is very often recommended that patients undergo radiation therapy, which consists in exposure to ionizing radiation to destroy the remaining mutated cells.
Prognosis and prevention
After surgical resection, the 5-year survival rate for people with bronchial asthma is 96%. In the long term, studies show a low incidence of relapse and development of metastases. In general, when the tumor is treated with the partial resection method, the prognosis is positive.
Preventing the formation of central lung cancer:
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Avoid second-hand smoke.
- Check your home for radon.
- Spend as much time as possible in the open air.
- To lead a healthy way of life and include more fruits and vegetables in the daily diet.
- Daily engage in physical education.